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Science Chapter 4

Vocabulary Carbon Chemistry

Diamond a form of the element carbon; it is the hardest mineral crystal on Earth
Graphite a form of the element carbon in which carbon atoms form flat layers
Fullerene a form of the element carbon that consists of carbon atoms arranged in a repeating pattern
Organic compound most compounds that contain carbon
Hydrocarbon an organic compound that contains only carbon and hydrogen
Molecular Formula a combination of chemical symbols that represent the elements in each molecule of a compound
Subscript a number in a formula written in lower and smaller than the symbol to indicate the number of atoms of an element in a molecule
Structural formula a description of a molecule that shows the kind, number, and arrangement of atoms
Isomer one of a number of compounds that have the same molecule formula but different structures
Saturated hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which all the bonds between carbon atoms are single bonds
Unsaturated hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which one or more of the binds between carbon atoms is double or triple
Substituted hydrocarbon a hydrocarbon in which one or more hydrocarbon atoms have been replaced by atoms of other elements
Hydroxyl group An -OH group, found in alcohols
Alcohol a substituted hydrocarbon that contains one or more hydroxyl groups
Organic acid a substituted hydrocarbon with one or more of the -COOH group of atoms
Carboxyl group A -COOH group, found in organic acids
Ester an organic compound made by chemically combining an alcohol and an organic acid
Polymer a large molecule in the form of a chain in which many smaller molecules are bonded together
Monomer one molecule that makes up the link in a polymer
Synthetic a material that is not formed naturally but is manufactured
Nutrient a substance that provides energy or raw materials for the body to grow, repair worn parts, or function properly
Digestion the process of breaking polymers into monomers by means of a chemical change
Carbohydrate an energy-rich organic compound made of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
Glucose a sugar found in the body; the monomer of many complex carbohydrates
Complex carbohydrate a long chain, or polymer, of simple carbohydrates
Starch a complex carbohydrate in which plants store energy
Cellulose a complex carbohydrate found in plant structures
Protein an organic compound that is a polymer of amino acids
Amino acid one of 20 kinds of organic compounds that are the monomers of proteins
Lipid an energy-rich polymer made of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen; examples: fats, oils, waxes, and cholesterol
Fatty acid an organic compound that is a monomer of a fat or oil
Cholesterol a waxy lipid found in all animal cells
Nucleic acid a very large organic compound made up of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorous. Examples: DNA and RNA
DNA Deoxyribro Nucleic Acid
RNA Ribo Nucleic Acid
Nucleotide an organic that is one of the monomers of nucleic acids
Vitamin an organic compound that serves as a helper molecule in a variety of chemical reactions in the body
Mineral a simple element needed by the body, that is not orgainic
Created by: Joes2016