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Chapter 1 Terms

Chapter 1 Security Terms

Advance Persistent Threat (APT) Multiyear intrusion campaign that targets highly sensitive economic, proprietary, or national security information.
asset An item that has value.
authentication The steps that ensure that the individual is who he or she claims to be.
authorization The act of providing permission or approval to technology resources.
availability Security actions that ensure that data is accessible to authorized users.
broker Attacker who sells knowledge of a vulnerability to other attackers or governments.
BYOD (bring your own device) The practice of allowing users to use their own personal devices to connect to an organizational network.
California's Database Security Breach Notification Act The first state electronic privacy law, which covers any state agency, person, or company that does business in California.
confidentiality Security actions that ensure that only authorized parties can view the information.
Cyber Kill Chain A systematic outline of the steps of a cyber attack, introduced at Lockheed Martin in 2011.
cybercrime Targeted attacks against financial networks, unauthorized access to information, and the theft of personal information.
cybercriminals A network of attackers, identity, thieves, spammers, and financial.
cyberterrorism A premeditated, politically motivated attack against information, computer systems, computer programs, and data, which often results in violence.
cyberterrorist Attacker whose motivation maybe defined as ideological, or attacking for the sake of principles or beliefs.
deterrence Understanding the attacker and then informing him of the consequences of the action.
exploit kit Automated attack package that can be used without and advanced knowledge of computers.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA) A U.S. law that requires banks and financial institutions to alert customers of their policies and practices in disclosing customer information.
hactivist Attacker who attacks for ideological reasons that are generally no as well-defined as a cyber terrorist's motivation.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) A U.S. law designed to guard protected health information and implement policies and procedures to safeguard it.
identity theft Stealing another person's personal information, such as a Social Security number, and then using the information to impersonate the victim, generally for financial gain.
information security The tasks of protecting the integrity, confidentiality, and availability of information on the devices that store, manipulate, and transmit the information through products, people, and procedures.
insiders Employees, contractors, and business partners who can be responsible for an attack.
integrity Security action that ensure that the information is correct and o unauthorized person or malicious software had altered the data.
mitigation Addressing a risk by making it less serious.
Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) A set of security standards that all U.S. companies processing, storing, or transmitting credit card information must follow.
risk A situation that involves exposure to danger.
risk avoidance Identifying the risk but making the decision to not engage in the activity.
Sarbanes-Oxly Act (Sarbox) A U.S. law designed to fight corporate corruption.
script kiddie Individual who lacks advanced knowledge of computers and networks and so uses downloaded automated attack software to attack information systems.
state-sponsored attacker Attacker commissioned by government to attack enemies' information systems.
threat A type of action that has the potential to cause harm.
threat agent A person or element that has the power to carry out a threat.
threat liklihood The probability that a threat will actually occur.
threat vector The means by which an attack could occur.
transference Transferring the risk to a third party.
vulnerability A flaw weakness that allows a threat agent to bypass security.
Created by: zheinen
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