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Chapters 12/13 Vocabulary: Electrons and Periodicity

atomic emission spectrum the pattern of frequencies obtained by passing light emitted by atoms of an element in the gasous state through a prism
atomic orbital a region in space around the nucleus of an atom where there is a high probability of finding an electron
Aufbau principle electrons enter orbitals of lowest energy first
electron configuration the arrangement of electrons around the nucleus of an atom in its ground state
energy level a region around the nucleus of an atom where an electron is likely to be moving, numbers 1-7
ground state the lowest energy level occupied by an electorn when an atom is in its most stable energy state
spectrum the range of wavelengths and frequencies making up light
alkali metal Group 1A elements, s-block, very reactive
alkaline earth metals Group 2A elements, s-block, also reactive but not as soluble in water
group column on the periodic table, represents a "family" of elements with similar chemical and physical properties
halogen Group 7A elements, p-block, salt-forming elements
noble gas Group 8A elements, p-block, non-reactive elements due to the fact that the outermost s and p sublevels are filled
period row on the periodic table, represents the energy level for s and p orbitals
periodic law when elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic pattern in their physical and chemical properties
representative element Groups of elements on the periodic table NOT including the transition metals, inner transition metals, and noble gases.
quantum the amount of energy needed for an electron to jump from one energy level to the next
electromagnetic radiation includes radio waves, microwaves, visible light, infrared, UV light, X-rays, and gamma rays
wavelength (lambda) the distance between two wave crests
frequency (nu) the number of wave cycles to pass a given point per unit of time
photon a single quantum of light, part of Einstein's idea that light can be seen as a wave OR a particle
excited state electrons that have jumped to a higher, more unstable energy level
energy sublevel s, p, d, and f
Created by: KellyBeck