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Reading Foundations

what is the distinction between phonological awareness and phonemic awareness (phonological) awareness that oral language is composed of smaller units like syllables (phonemic) specific type of phonological awareness, ability to tell the separate phonemes in a spoken word
phoneme smallest part of spoken language that makes a difference in the meaning of words. how a letter(s) sounds when you sound it out. ex. (check - ch/e/k)
how many phonemes does English language have? 41
grapheme smallest part of a written language that represents a phoneme in the spelling of a word (check - ch/e/ck)
phonics helps children learn the relationships between letters of written language and the sounds of spoken language
phonemic awareness the ability to hear identify and manipulate individual sounds -phonemes - in spoken words. ability to sound out words.
phonological awareness broad term that includes phonemic awareness as well as work with rhymes, words, syllables, onsets and rimes
a word part that contains a vowel syllable
parts of spoken language that are smaller than syllables but larger than phonemes onset and rime (ex. stop st=onset; op=rime)
initial consonant sound of a syllable onset
part of syllable that contains the vowel and all that follows it rime
what is the hierarchy of phonological awareness (1-5)? 1.rhyming 2.syllables 3.counting words in a sentence 4. hearing/manipulating onset and rime 5. phonemic awareness
what is segmentation breaking words into their individual phonemes, also when they break into syllables, or onsets and rimes
phoneme manipulation blending(say word), segmenting(break it up into phonemes or syllables), deleting (taking out a letter), and adding phonemes in words to make new ones
blending example in phoneme manipulation when students sound out phonemes to say the word (what word is b/i/g?)
what is the alphabetic principle phonemes (speech sounds) that are represented by letters and letter pairs
environmental print print found authentically in our environment (stop sign, labels on food).
who is described as emerging readers? what is Emergent Literacy: typically in an early childhood setting or kindergarten. They have not yet begun formal reading instruction. literacy begins very early with even scribbling
whats included in book handling skills? Illustrates a child’s knowledge of how books “work” (how to hold the book, tracking print from left to right, front and back cover, title page, dedication page etc.)
silent e pattern when a short word ends with an "e" the first vowel usually has the long sound and the final e is silent (pinecone, side, cane)
what is the difference between decoding and encoding (decoding) translating written words into the sounds and meanings of spoken words (encoding) translating spoken words into written words aka spelling
what are the three reading cueing systems semantics (meaning) does it make sense, syntax (structure) does it sound right, phonics (visual) does it match the print
what are cueing systems strategies that readers use to predict, confirm and self-correct when reading words that they do not already know with automaticity. ( meaning/semantics, structure/syntax, visual/phonics)
short vs long vowels (examples) (short) A: apple, E: elephant, I: igloo, O: octopus, U: umbrella (long) A-say, E: tree, I: bike, O: boat, U: cute
what are blends and diphthongs (blends) - consonant pairs or clusters, where each sound is still heard bl, sm, scr, gr, sl (diphthong) blend of vowel sounds where each sound is still heard oi, ou ex. boil and mouth
digraphs and trigraphs 2 letters that make a new sound together ch, ph, sh, th, wh, tch (consonants) ai, ay, oa, ee, ea (vowels)
what are 2 approaches to phonics instruction (describe them) [synthetic phonics] part to whole , student learns letter sounds first then pronunciation of words [analytic phonics] whole to part, student learns sight words and then letter sounds and phonic generalizations
what strategies support oral reading fluency repeated readings of familiar texts, echo reading, choral reading, readers theater
morpheme any unit in a word (dogs- s and dog are both morphemes)
what is decoding sounding out words
closed vs. open syllables [closed] when a short word with one vowel ends in a consonant the vowel is short, ex. text damp ham [open] when a word has one vowel at the end of syllable the vowel is long ex. tiger, nation, human
inflectional endings affixes added to end of words to indicate number or tense (bush/bushes, play/playing, played, plays)
schwa an unstressed vowel sounds (around, custom) makes "uh" sound
what are some comprehension strategies to support effective reading? rereading, visualizing, reviewing, self-monitoring, and other meta-cognitive strategies
what writing activities promote literary response and analysis creating story maps and other graphic organizers, comparing and contrasting different versions of a story, different books by the same author, treatment of similar themes and topics in different texts or genres
literal comprehension student can repeat back the sequence of events and identify ey story elements ( who, what, when, where), explicitly stated in the text
inferential comprehension information that is implied within the text but not explicitly stated. read between the lines
evaluative comprehension reader needs to use information from the text and their own world experiences to form a judgment
what are some activities for prereading to help activate background knowledge, stimulate predictions and form a purpose for reading predicting, connect personal experiences to story, picture walk, notice structure of text and compare to past ones (poem, fairy tale), come up with predictions and questions about story
cloze procedure fill in the blank with words they think would best complete the sentence
criterion referenced test tests based on objectives that contain specifc conditions outcomes and criteria that are expected for satisfactory completion of the task
norm referenced test provides information on how well a student performs in comparison to an external reference group or norm group
miscue analysis analysis of any responses (mistakes) made during oral reading that deviate from those anticipated
what is purpose of informal reading inventories determine a students independent reading level and to reveal processes that the student uses or neglects in decoding print
what are running records type of observational assessment that allows teacher to determine students reading level. can be completed with any text and is more flexible than IRIs
in miscue analysis, mistakes students make are viewed as hindrances to what? hindrances to learning to decode
what does percentile ranking mean? ex 70th percentile makes comparing one student to another easier, she did better than 70 percent of people who took the test
Reliability, Validity, and Reporting are key terms to know for what? Norm referenced test because we need to make accurate student comparisons
what are the 4 types of word identification strategies used to assess student's strengths and weaknesses? (1) use of phonics (2)analysis of word structure (3) use of context clues (4) identification of sight words
what are some strategies for decoding longer multi-syllable words? break long words into chunks of words they do know, into syllables, use word analysis to divide words into meaning bearing parts such as prefix suffix
what does it mean to use word analysis or word structure divide words into meaning bearing parts such as prefixes suffixes and roots or bases
what are some types of phonics generalizations? vowel digraphs (2 letters make new sound), words ending in silent e, consonant blends (2 letters make both sounds)
if student says a passage doesnt make sense he is using knowledge of _____? what about something not sounding right? semantics (make sense) syntax (sound right)
what are some examples of regular and irregular sight words? (regular) am at mom big (irregular) because were what said the
word identification is so important because____ is required for fluent reading and____ is strongly related to comprehension. automaticity and fluency
literal vs inferential vs critical comprehension (literal) comprehension involves what the author is actually saying outright,(inferential) is what the author means by what is said (critical) why the author says what he or she says
engagement of schema use of background knowledge to understand story more
self monitoring behavior during reading comprehension evidence of metacognition, does student apply comprehension strategies to better understand text (summarizing, visualizing, making connections), is student aware of areas when they dont understand text and what strategy is needed to help comprehension
what should students use when decoding is not enough to spell words correctly? word analysis: identify smaller words in larger words, notice roots and bases, prefixes and suffixes, break words into syllables,
structural analysis strategies help the reader do what? understand the meaning of the word by breaking apart words into meaning bearing parts. analysis of word structure
When a short word (or syllable) with one vowel letter ends in a consonant, the vowel sound is usually what?. short ex. ham, damp, pan aka. closed syllables: generalizations in multisyllabic words
When a word or a syllable has only one vowel and it comes at the end of the word or syllable, it usually creates _____ the long vowel sound. ex. ti-ger, na-tion, he, me. aka open syllables, generalizations in multisyllabic words
inflectional endings Affixes added to the end of words to indicate number (ox/oxen, bush/bushes) or tense (playing, played, plays)
what are the stages of reading development emergent readers (pre-k - 1st) early readers (1st-2nd) early flunent/fluent (2nd-3rd)
high frequency words with irregular spellings are called _____ sight words
with greater automaticity and accuracy of sight words student can focus on ____ comprehension
Bloom's taxonomy A system for categorizing levels of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.
prosody the patterns of rhythm and sound used in poetry, intonation and stress in language
Created by: simmonsss



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