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Benzene, NMR, pH and Kinetics.

Identify the Acid1-Base1 and Acid2-Base2 - A)Acid1= HNO3, Acid2= NO3-, Base1= H20, Base2= H3O+ or B)Acid1= H3O+, Acid2= HNO3, Base1= NO3-, Base2= H20 or C)Acid1= HNO3, Acid2= H3O+, Base1= NO3-, Base2= H20 C) Acid1= HNO3, Acid2= H3O+, Base1= NO3-, Base2= H20
Define: Bronsted-Lowry Acid A proton donor
Explain the difference between 'LARGE Ka VALUE' and 'SMALL Ka VALUE' A 'Large Ka Value' means a low pKa showing high dissociation meaning its a STRONG ACID and a 'Small Ka Value' means high pKa value showing low dissociation meaning its a WEAK ACID.
Describe what is pH & use an equation to explain pH is [H+], pH = -log[H+]
Write an expression for Ka using HA <---> A- + H+ Ka = [A-] [H+]/ [HA], remember: [Products]/[Reactants]
Describe what the splitting means on a proton NMR spectrum How many protons the adjacent carbon has (n+1)
Explain what each peak on a C-13 spectrum represents How many carbon environments are present
Describe how resonance occurs Need to mention: Strong magnetic field, Thoes with low energy will align with magnetic field, Low-energy radio-frequency radiation added. Nuclei will oppose release energy and flip back, This continues creating resonance
Explain what is the D2O is used for has the same chemical compound of water, but with an isotope, that doesn't produce NMR signal. Any peak due to -OH and -NH disapear
How is NMR used medicine MRI SCANS
Define and give the units of: Rate of Reaction. The increase or decrease in concentration of reactants per unit time. Unit: mol.dm^-3 s^-1
Define Half-Life. Half-life is the amount of time needed for a reactant concentration to decrease by half compared to its initial concentration.
Describe how Half-life is shown on a graph. On the y axis go to 1/2 of the initial concentration + draw a horizontal line cutting the y axis + stopping where it meets the graph. Then draw a line from that down. Do the same for 1/2 of that concentration (so 1/4 of the initial concentration) + repeat
What is the formula for calculating the units of the rate constant, k? (mol.dm^-3)^[1-overall order].s^-1
Describe the graph of Ratio vs Time, with the order of 0. A straight horizontal graph, with a gradient 0.
What is the difference between the products of the reaction of Phenol with Dilute HNO3 and Conc HNO3? The reaction with dilute HNO3 produces phenol with the NO2 on carbon 2 OR carbon 4. The reaction with conc HNO3 produces phenol with the NO2 on carbon 2, 4 and 6.
List the conditions and reagents for the Nitration of Benzene and give the equation. Catalyst: conc H2SO4 Reagent: conc HNO3 Condition: reflux @ 55 degrees celcius Equation: C6H6 + HNO3 —> C6H5NO2 + H2O
What are 2,4-DNP and Tollen’s Reagent used for and describe observations? 2,4-DNP: used to detect BOTH Aldehydes and Ketones, orange ppt forms if present. TR: distinguishes between an aldehyde and ketone. When an aldehyde is present a silver ppt forms.
Why do Aldehydes form silver ppt with Tollen’s Reagent? Aldehydes reduce [Ag(NH3)2]+ to silver metal as the solution is alkaline, the aldehyde itself is reduced to a salt of carboxylic acid.
Give two uses of Phenol. Any two of: Antiseptics, manufacturing pharmaceuticals, detergents and dyes.
Created by: abigail_ackon619