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Chemistry Vocabulary

TermDefinition
Chemistry The science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter changed under different conditions.
Organic Chemisty The study of substances that contain the element carbon.
Organic Means that the material contains both carbon and hydrogen from either natural or synthetic sources.
Inorganic Chemistry The study of substances that do not contain the element carbon.
Matter Any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).
Element It cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity.
Atoms The smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element. Cannot be divided into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.
Molecules A chemical combination of two or more atoms in definite (fixed) proportions.
Elemental Molecule A molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element in definite (fixed) proportions.
Compound Molecules (compounds) Chemical combination of two or more atom of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions.
Physical Properties Characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction. Do not involve a chemical change in the substance.
Chemical Properties Characteristics that can only be determined by chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance.
Physical Change A change in the form or physical properties of a substance, without a chemical reaction or the creation of a new substance.
Chemical Change A change in the chemical composition or makeup of a substance.
Oxidation Refers to a chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide.
Oxidation-Reduction AKA Redox, is a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen).
Oxidizing Agent A substance that releases oxygen.
Reduction The process through which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance through a chemical reaction.
Exothermic Reactions A chemical reaction that releases a significant amount of heat.
Combustion The rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light.
Pure Substance A chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed) proportions.
Physical Mixture A physical combination of matter in any proportions.
Solution A stable physical mixture of two or more substances.
Solute The substance that is dissolved into solution.
Solvent The substance that dissolves the solute and makes the solution.
Miscible Liquids are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form the solution.
Immiscible Liquids are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions.
Suspensions Unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid.
Emulsion An unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier.
Emulsifier An ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend.
Surfactants Substances that allows oil and water to mix, or emulsify.
Lipophilie Having an affinity for an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving).
Oil-in-water Emulsion Oil droplets are emulsified in water
Water-in-oil Emulsion Water droplets are emulsified in oil.
Volatile Alcohols Those that evaporate easily, such as isopropyl alcohol (rubbing) and ethyl alcohol (hairspray and alcoholic drinks).
Alkanolamines Alkaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products.
Ammonia Ammonium hydroxide and ammonium thioglycolate are examples of these compounds that are used to perform chemical services in a salon.
Glycerin A sweet, colorless, oily substance. It is used as a solvent and as a moisturizer in skin and body creams.
Silicones Special type of oil used in hair conditioners, water-resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers.
Volatile Organic Compounds Compounds that contain carbon (organic) and evaporate very easily (volatile).
pH Abbreviation for possible hydrogen
Ion An atom or molecule that carries an electric charge.
Ionization The separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions.
Anion An ion with a negative electrical charge
Cation An ion with a positive electrical charge.
pH Scale A measure of acidity and alkalinity of a substance.
Logarithm Multiples of ten.
Alpha Hydroxy Acids (AHAs) Examples of acids often used in salons to exfoliate the skin and to help adjust the pH of a lotion or cream
Alkalis AKA bases, owe their chemical reactivity to the hydroxide ion.
Created by: BridgetteMunroe