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chemistry is the science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter and how matter changes under different condition
organic chemistry is the study of substances that contain the element carbon
inorganic chemistry is the study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen
element is the simplest form of chemical matter. it cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without a loss of identity
atoms are the smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element
molecule is a chemical combination of two or more atoms in definite (fixed) proportions
elemental molecule a molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element (in this case, oxygen) in definite (fixed) proportions
compound molecules also known as compounds, are a chemical combination of two or more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions
physical properties states of matter
states of matter the three different physical form matter-solid liquid and gas
physical properties are characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not involve a chemical change in the substance
chemical properties are characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance
physical changes is a change in the form or physical properties of a substances without a chemical reaction or the reaction or the creation of a new substance
chemical change is a change in the chemical composition or make up of a new subtsance
oxidation a chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce an oxide
oxidation reduction also known as redox is a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidizing (by gaining oxygen)
oxidizing agent is a substance that releases oxygen
reduction is the process through which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substances through a chemical reaction
reduction reaction a chemical reaction in which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to a substance
exothermic reactions chemical reactions that releases a significant amount of heat
combustion is the rapid oxidation of a substance accompanied by te production of heat and light
pure substances is a chemical combination of matter is definite (fixed) proportions
physical mixture is a physical combination of matter in any proportions
solution is a stable physical mixture of two or more substances
solute is the substance that is dissolved into solution
solvent is the substances that dissolves the solute and makes the solution
miscible liquids are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form stable solutions
immiscible liquids are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions
suspensions are unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid
emulsion is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not stay blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier
emulsifier is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend
surfactants are substances that allow oil and water to mix or emulsify
lipophilic having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving)
oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion oil droplets are emulsified in water
water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion water droplets are emulsified in oil
volatile alcohols are those that evaporate easily such as isopropyl alcohol (rubbing) and ethyl alcohol (hairspray and alcoholic beverages)
alkanolamines are alkaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products
ammonia is a colorless gas with a pungent odor that is composed of hydrogen and nitrogen
glycerin is a sweet, colorless, oily substances used as a solvent and as a moisturizer in the skin and body creams
silicones are a special type of oil used in hair conditioners water-resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers
volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are compounds that contains carbon (organic) and evaporate very easily (volatile)
pH the abbreviation used for potential hydrogen. pH represents the quantity of hydrogen ions
ion is an atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge
ionization is the separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions
anion an ion with a negative electrical charge
cation an ion with a positive electrical charge
pH is a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance
acidic solution a solution that has a pH below 7.0 (neutral)
alkaline solution a solution that has a pH above 7.0 (neutral)
logarithm means multiples of 10
alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) abbreviated AHAs; acids derived from plants (mostly fruit) that are often used to exfoliate the skin
thioglycolic a colorless liquid or white crystals with a strong unpleasant odor that is used in permanent waving solution
alkalis also known as bases, owe their chemical reactivity to the hydroxide ion
Created by: kaiteona