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Ch. 12 Chemistry

Chemistry is the science that deals with the composition, structures, and properties of matter and how matter changes under different conditions
Organic Chemistry is the study of substances that contain the element carbon
Inorganic Chemistry is the study of substances that do not contain the element carbon, but may contain the element hydrogen
Matter is any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight).
Element is the simplest form of chemical matter
Atoms are the smallest chemical components (often called particles) of an element
Molecule is a chemical combination of two or more atoms in definite (fixed) proportions
Element Molecule a molecule containing two or more atoms of the same element (in this case, oxygen) in definite ( fixed) proportions
Compound Molecules are chemical combination of two of more atoms of different elements in definite (fixed) proportions
Physical Properties are characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reactions and that do not involve a chemical change in the substance
Chemical Properties are characteristics that can only be determined by a chemical reaction and a chemical change in the substance
Physical Change is a change in the form of physical properties of a substances without a chemical reaction or the creation of a new substance
Chemical Change is a change in the chemical composition or make-up of substance
Oxidation - reduction is a chemical reaction in which the oxidizing agent is reduced (by losing oxygen) and the reducing agent is oxidized (by gaining oxygen)
Oxidizing agent is a substance that release oxygen
Reduction is the process through which oxygen is subtracted from or hydrogen is added to substance through a chemical
Reduction Reaction chemical reaction
Exothermic Reaction types of chemical reaction
Combustion is the rapid oxidation of a substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light
Pure Substance is a chemical combination of matter in definite (fixed) proportions
Physical mixture is a physical combination of matter in any proportions
Solution is a stable physical mixture of two or more substances
Solute is the substance that is that dissolved into solution
Solvent is the substance that dissolve the solute and make the solution
Miscible liquids are mutually soluble, meaning that they can be mixed together to form stable solutions
Immiscible liquids are not capable of being mixed together to form stable solutions
Suspensions are unstable physical mixtures of undissolved particles in a liquid
Emulsion is an unstable physical mixture of two or more immiscible substances (substances that normally will not say blended) plus a special ingredient called an emulsifier
Emulsifier is an ingredient that brings two normally incompatible materials together and binds them into a uniform and fairly stable blend
Surfactants are substances that allow oil and water to mix, or emulsify
Lipophilic having an affinity for or an attraction to fat and oils (oil-loving)
Oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion oil droplets are emulsified in water
Water-in-oil (O/W) emulsion water droplets are emulsified in oil
Volatile alcohols are those that evaporate easily, such as isopropyl alcohol (rubbing alcohol) and ethyl alcohol (hairspray and alcoholic beverage).
Alkanolamines are alkaline substances used to neutralize acids or raise the pH of many hair products
Ammonia is a colorless gas with a pungent odor that is composed of hydrogen and nitrogen
Glycerin is a sweet, colorless, oily substance
Silicones are a special type of oil used in hair conditioners, water-resistant lubricants for the skin, and nail polish dryers
pH is often mentioned when talking about salon products, it is one of the least understood chemical properties
ion is an atom or molecule that carries an electrical charge
Ionization is the separation of an atom or molecule into positive and negative ions
Anion an ion with a negative electrical charge
Cation an ion with a positive electrical charge
pH scale is a measure of the acidity and alkalinity of a substance
Acidic Solution a pH of 7 is a neutral solution, a pH below 7 indicates
Alkaline Solution a pH above 7 indicates
Logarithm means multiples of 10
Alpha hydroxy acids (AHAs) derived from plants (mostly fruit), are examples of acids often used in salons to exfoliate the skin and to help adjust the pH of a lotion or cream
Alkalis also known as bases, owe their chemical reactivity to the hydroxide ion
Created by: BrianaHervey