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Periodiska systemet

Definitioner om periodiska systemet och atomer

Atom Minsta enheten av ett grundämne, cellernas byggstenar, materians byggsternar  Alltid neutral i laddning.
Subatomära partiklar Atomens olika delar (proton, neutron och elektron)
Proton Positivt laddade partiklar i atomkärnan
Neutron Neutralt, oladdade, partiklar i atomkärnan
Elektron Negativt laddade partiklar som rör sig i snabb hastighet runt atomkärnan
Perioder De vågräta raderna i periodiska systemet
Grupper De lodräta kolumnerna i periodiska systemet
Grundämne Ett ämne som endas innehåller atomer med samma antal protoner i atomkärnan
Valensskal Det yttersta elektronlagret
Valenselektroner Det antal elektroner i yttersta skalet
Ädelgasstruktur Den struktur alla atomer eftersträvar = fyllt valensskal
Kemisk förening Består av två eller fler grundämnen som är förenade med varandra genom kemisk bindning
Jon En atom med en laddning
Jonbindning Kemisk reaktion som beror på attraktion mellan olikladdade joner
Kovalent bindning (molekylbindning) Bindning mellan atomer som delar elektroner
Metallbindning En eller flera valenselektroner per metallatom i metallen får möjlighet att röra sig nästan fritt över hela "kroppen". Elektronerna används av alla atomer i "kroppen"
Isotoper Atomer med samma antal protoner, dvs samma placering i periodiska systemet, men med olika antal neutroner
Alkalimetaller Grundämnen i grupp 1 i periodiska systemet (ex Na, Li)
Halogener Grundämnen i grupp 17 i periodiska systemet (ex Cl, F)
Ädelgaser Grundämnen i grupp 18 i periodiska systemet (ex He, Ne)
Enkelbindning Atomerna i molekylen delar på ett elektronpar
Dubbelbindning Atomerna i molekylen delar på två elektronpar
Trippelbindning Atomerna i molekylen delar på tre elektronpar
Kemisk bindning De elektriska krafter som binder ihop atomer till större strukturer
Created by: lottawiberg



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