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Chemistry Final

What is mutation? A change in nucleotide sequence of DNA
What are the 3 types of mutataion? Missense, Nonsense, and Silent
What is biotechnology? transfers DNA from one organism to another; used to produce pharmaceuticals
What is metabolism? the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in an organism
What is the role of ATP in metabolism? to drive the chemical; gives anabolism energy
What is nutrition? the science of diet and health
What are the 3 key concepts of nutrition? Adequate: enough Moderate: limit unhealthy components Balance/Variety: various foods and amounts
What are the 5 basic food groups? grains, vegetables, fruits, milks, and meat & beans
What is the difference between simple carbs and complex carbs? Simple: monosacharides and polysacharides Complex: dissacharides
What is a dietary fiber? part of the food that cannot be digested by human enzymes
What is the glycemic index? the rate at which the carbs are processed into glucose
What percent of the diet should consist of carbs? 45-65%
What's the main function of the dietary proteins? to provide amino acids necessary to make new proteins
What toxic compound is associated with the breakdown of excess amino acids?
What is an essential amino acid? An amino acid that cannot be made by the body.
What is an example of an amino acid? Valine, Lysine, Arginine
What is a complete protein? A protein that contains all essential amino acids in the required proportions
What source of proteins tend to be complete? animal proteins
Why should vegetarians eat a wide variety of plant proteins? most plant proteins are NOT complete so they require more
What percent of the diet should consist of proteins? 10-30%
What are the 2 main classes of dietary lipids? fats and oils
What is a lipoprotein and its function? a combination of lipids and proteins; transport steroids in lipoproteins
What is the role of LDL? LDL transports cholesterol from the liver to other tissues
What is the role of HDL? HDL transports cholesterol to the liver where it then gets rid of LDL; lowering cholesterol
What is the dietary role of triglycerides?
Where are triglycerides stored? in the fat cells
What is olestra? A synthetic cooking oil used as a calorie-free substitute ini foods
What are side effects of olestra? Diarrhea and anal leakage
What are the good fats? Unsaturated fats & essential fatty acids
What is an essential fatty acid? acids that the body cannot synthesize; lenoleic & lenolenic
What percent of the diet should consist of lipids? 20-35%
What are the dietary requirements of water? Water makes up 60% of the total body mass
What are the functions of water? regulates body temp helps with digestion lubrication
What is a vitamin? organic molecules required in minute amounts for life processes
What are the fat soluble vitamins? Vitamins A, D, E, K
What role does these vitamins play? A- Vision D- Calcium absorption E-Antioxidants K- Blood clotting
What vitamin is referred to as the sunshine vitamin? Vitamin D
What birth defect is associated with a deficiency of folic acid? low birth weight & neural tube defects
What is the definition of a mineral in terms of diet? those elements needed for good health (Excludes H,N,O)
What is the FDA? Food & Drug Administration
What responsibilities does the FDA have? inspects food & food processing facilities to ensure safety
What is a food additive? sugar we digest and fibers we cannot
What is the GRAS list? chemicals/ substances added to food & considered safe by experts so its exempted from the food additive list
What is a transgenic crop or genetically modified food? a crop altered by genetic engineering
What was the first genetic crop and when was it created? Flavr Slavs tomato 1994
What are the 3 categories of energy that the human body uses? Basal Metabolism Physical Activity Thermogenesis
What is Basal Metabolism? energy released to sustain life processes >breathing, circulation, nerves, & body temp
What is Physical Activity? energy used to do voluntary activities >walking & running
What is Thermogenesis? increased release of heat after consuming a meal
Created by: bpruitt