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Chemistry

Exam Review Feb. 2009

QuestionAnswer
What is an acid? Tastes sour, reacts with metals and carbonates, turns blue litmus paper red, <7 on pH scale
What is a base? Tastes bitter, feels slippery, turns red litmus paper blue, >7 on pH scale
What is a Hydrogen ion (H+)? An atom of hydrogen that has lost its electron.
What is a Hydroxide iron (OH-)? A negatively charged ion.....Gained an electron
Element: Simplest pure substance. Can't be broken into other substances
Matter: Anything that has mass and volume
What is all matter composed of? 1 element or a combination of 2 or more elements
Compound Substance made of 2 or more elements chemically combined
Mixture 2 or more elements in the same place, but NOT chemically combined
Democritus Named the atom
Thompson Came up with the plum pudding model
Rutherford Disproved plum pudding model
Bohr Closest theory to modern atom model
Protons positively charged particles, located in the nucleus
Neutrons no electric charge, located in the nucleus
Electrons negatively charged particles, located in the electron cloud
Solid Definite volume and shape, particles close together
Liquid Definite volume, particles vibrate
Gas No definite volume or shape, particles move past each other easily
Density Mass/Volume
Melting Solid-Liquid
Freezing Liquid-Solid
Condensation Gas-Liquid
Evaporation Liquid-Gas
Sublimation Solid-Gas
Synthesis A+B yields AB
Decomposition AB yields A+B
Single Replacement AB+C yields AC+B
Double Replacement AB+CD yields AC+BD
Homogeneous Solution Particles hard to tell apart
Heterogeneous Solution Particles easy to tell apart
Atom: Smallest particle of an element
Nucleus: Center of atom, where the mass is, protons and neutrons
Energy Level A region around the nucleus in which electrons of the same energy are likely to be found
Atomic # order of periodic table, amount of protons
Atomic Mass # of protons + # of neutrons
Valence Electrons electrons in the outermost energy level
Ion atom/group of atoms that has an electric charge
Ionic Bond attraction between 2 oppositely charged ions....they form as a result of the attraction between positive and negative ions...lots of energy is needed to break the bond
Chemical Formula Combo of symbols that shows the ratio of elements in a compound
Covalent Bond 2 atoms share electrons
Polar Bond Covalent bond in which electrons are shared unequally
Nonpolar Bond Covalent bond in which electrons are shared equally
Conservation of Mass In a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants must equal the total mass of the products
Created by: msprez2be