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Chemistry Chapter 6

Groups of Elements

Chromium - used to plate metal parts - resistant to corrosion - added to iron and nickel to make stainless steel - found in gemstones and paint pigments
Iron - least expensive metal - used in many alloys - obtained by burning iron compounds in blast furnace - readily corrodes - essential part of healthy diet
Copper - coinage metal - added to tin to make bronze - soft - reddish color - added to zinc to make brass - second best conductor - used to make electrical wiring - used to make pennies until 1982
Silver - coinage metal - very ductile and malleable - relatively soft - added to 7.5% copper to make sterling silver - best conductor - used to make jewelry, silverware, and electrical equipment - used in photography
Gold - coinage metal - very dense - very soft - 24 karat = pure gold - 18 karat = 75% gold - gold + silver = yellow gold - gold + nickel = white gold
Aluminum - third most abundant element in Earth's crust - low density - strong when alloyed - used as structural material - doesn't corrode in air because of layer of aluminum oxide
Carbon - major component in fossil fuels - found in all living organisms - forms very many compounds - diamond and graphite = pure carbon
Silicon - second most abundant element in Earth's crust - silicon dioxide makes sand - silicon + oxygen = structural material for rocks - silica makes glass
Tin - coats steel to make tin cans
Lead - used in plumbing - used to make batteries
Nitrogen - 80% of Earth's atmosphere - used to make fertilizers and ammonia
Phosphorus - phosphoric acid gives soft drinks their sour taste - used to make fertilizer and detergent
Oxygen - must abundant element on Earth - 23% of air - 89% of water - 46% of crustal rock - forms oxides when combined with other elements - required for respiration and combustion - also exists as ozone (pollutant that attacks structural material)
Sulfur - found in nature as brimstone - hydrogen sulfide used to make stink bombs (rotten egg smell) - used to detect natural gas leaks
Fluorine - most reactive element - used to make plastics
Chlorine - used as disinfectant in drinking water and swimming pools
Helium - used as coolant - commercially most important noble gas
Argon - used to make light bulbs
Neon - used to make neon lights
Hydrogen - combines with oxygen to make water - most abundant element in the universe
copper, silver, and gold coinage metals
lanthanide metals readily lose 3 e- to for 3+ ions. sof, silvery metals, less reactive then earth metals, still too reactive to be used in structural materials-primary use, make special steel alloys
actinides all isotopes of elements are radioactive. all elements after uranium are artificial elements
thorium/uranium only actinides that occur to any extent in nature
noble gases least reactive
diatomic all of the halogens exist in elemental form as __________ molecules
iron sulfide chemical name for rust
silica major component of glass
s-block alkali metals-most reactive; alkaline earth metals- almost as reactive as alkali metals. alkaline are not as reactive because of higher melting points and densities. reactivity increases down this family
Created by: VivianKellar