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Chemistry 111

Final Exam

Scientific law a brief statement that combines past observations and predicts future ones
Law of conservation of energy energy is neither created or destroyed
Law of conservation of mass matter is neither created or destroyed in a chemical reaction
Law of constant composition all samples of a given compound have the same proportions of their constituent elements
Aluminum Al
Antimony Sb
Argon Ar
Arsenic As
Barium Ba
Bismuth Bi
Boron B
Bromine Br
Cadmium Cd
Calcium Ca
Carbon C
Chlorine Cl
Chromium Cr
Cobalt Co
Copper Cu
Flourine F
Gold Au
Helium He
Hydrogen H
Iodine I
Iron Fe
Lead Pb
Lithium Li
Magnesium Mg
Manganese Mn
Mercury Hg
Neon Ne
Nickel Ni
Nitrogen N
Oxygen O
Palladium Pd
Phosphorus P
Platinum Pt
Plutonium Pu
Potassium K
Radium Ra
Silicon Si
Silver Ag
Sodium Na
Strontium Sr
Sulfur S
Tin Sn
Titanium Ti
Tungsten W
Uranium U
Xenon Xe
Zinc Zn
Periodic law when the elements are arranged in order of increasing relative mass, certain sets of properties recur periodically
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Chemical symbol a one- or two-letter abbreviation for the element that appears directly below its atomic number on the periodic table that each element is represented by
Metals occupy the left side of the periodic table and have similar properties
Nonmetals occupy the upper right side of the periodic table and have varied properties
Metalloids most of the elements that lie along the zigzag diagonal line dividing metals and nonmetals, also called semimetals
Ions charged particles
Cations positively charged ions
Anions negatively charged ions
Pure substances may be elements or compounds
Elements may be atomic or molecular
Compounds may be molecular or ionic
Atomic elements those that exist in nature with single atoms as their basic units
Molecular elements exist as diatomic molecules- 2 atoms of that element bonded together- as their basic units
Molecular compounds compounds formed from 2 or more nonmetals
Ionic compounds contain 1 or more cations paired with 1 or more anions
For most conversion problems given unit * desired unit/given unit = desired unit information given * conversion factor(s) = information sought
Multi-step unit conversion problems add more steps, each having a conversion factor from the previous step in the denominator and the units of the following step in the numerator
International System of units (SI units) a set of standard units agreed on by scientists throughout the world
Length meter (m)
Mass kilogram (kg)
Time second (s)
Temperature kelvin (K)
Prefix multipliers change the value of a unit by powers of 10
Units of energy joule, calorie, Calorie, and kilowatt-hour
Isotopes atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Percent natural abundance percentage of isotopes that all elements have
Created by: kp0319412