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Chemistry 10 BC

Name three subatomic particles. protons, neutrons, electrons
What is a proton symbol? p
What is a neutron symbol? n
What is an electron symbol? e
What charge does a proton have? +
What charge does a neutron have? 0
What charge does an electron have? -
Where is the proton located in the atom? nucleus
Where is the neutron located in the atom? nucleus
Where is the electron located in the atom? surrounding the nucleus
What is a nuclear charge? an electric charge on the nucleus; always positive because protons have a positive charge and the neutrons are not charged
What is an atomic number? the number of protons
Do you count transition metals when counting columns of the periodic table? no you don't and it really messes you up if you do :)
Where are metals located on the periodic table? left and the middle
Where are nonmetals located on the periodic table? upper right corner
Where can you find metalloids on the periodic table and what do they look like? a staircase on the right side
Name the diatomic molecules. hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, flourine, chlorine, bromine, and iodine
How many electrons are held in the first shell of a Bohr diagram? 2
How many electrons are held in the second shell of a Bohr diagram? and what is it called when full? 8 - stable octet
How do you figure out how many electrons are held in the valence shell of the Bohr diagram? it is the column number (group) that the element is in on the periodic table
What is an ionic compound? an ionic compound loses or gains electrons; combination of a metal and a non-metal
What is a covalent compound? sharing electrons; when a nonmetal and a nonmetal combine
What is a Lewis diagram? a diagram showing only an atom's valence electrons and it's chemical symbol
What are the rules for naming ionic compounds? first part of the name indicates the POSITIVE ion (a metal), second part of the name indicates the NEGATIVE ion (a non-metal)- the non metals name also ends in the suffix -ide
multivalent metals have more than one ion charge; the ion charge that it is - you must show with a roman numeral
polyatomic ion an ion composed of more than one type of atom joined by covalent bonds
binary covalent compound contains two non-metal elements joined by one or more covalent bonds
How to name a binary covalent compound? the prefix indicates how many atoms of each element are present? the second element ends with the suffix -ide
What do acids produce? hydrogen ions (H+)
What do bases produce? hydroxide ions (OH-)
What happens when an acidic solution is mixed with a basic solution? they neutralize each other
How can you identify an acid by looking at its chemical formula? it generally starts with hydrogen on the left hand side of the formula, or the name ends with -ic acid
How can you identify a base by looking at its chemical formula? bases generally have OH on the right hand side of their chemical formula
What are some attributes of bases? tastes bitter, feels slippery, conducts electricity, has a ph greater than 7
What are some attributes of acids? they taste sour, conduct electricity, have a ph less than 7, they produce hydrogen ions, and they react with metals causing them to corrode
What are salts? a class of ionic compounds that can be formed during a reaction of an acid and a base
How do you identify a organic compound? they contain carbon; lots of "c's" and "H's";
What is a synthesis reaction? element + element = compound A+B = AB
What is a decomposition reaction? Compound = element + element AB = A+B
What is a single replacement reaction? element + compound = element + compound A+BC = B + AC (where A is a metal) or A+BC = C+ BA (where C is a nonmetal)
What is a double replacement reaction? ionic solution + ionic solution = ionic solution + ionic solid AB (aq) + CD (aq) = AD (aq) + CB (s)
What is a neutralization reaction? acid + base = salt + water
What is a combustion reaction? hydrocarbon + oxgen = carbon dioxide + water
What is rate of reaction? how quickly or slowly reactants turn into products
How does temperature affect the rate of chemical reaction? hot makes it fast; cold makes it slow; particles collide more when they are moving faster and less when they are moving slower
How does concentration affect the rate of chemical reaction? the more concentrated the molecules are, the more likely they are to collide and react
How does surface area affect the rate of reaction? for the same amount yof mass, there is a larger surface area for reactants to react
How does a catalyst affect the rate of reaction? it speeds it up by reducing the amount of energy required to break and form bonds
What is radioactivity? the release of high-energy particles and rays of energy from a substance as a result of changes in the nuclei of its atoms
What is radiation? high-energy rays and particles emitted by radioactive sources
What is light? a form of radiation that humans can see
What are isotopes? Isotopes are different atoms of a particular element that have the same number number of protons but different number of neutrons
How do you find the mass number of an isotope? mass number = atomic number + number of neutrons
How do you find the number of neutrons in an isotope? number of neutrons = mass number - atomic number
How are isotopes represented? the mass number is written as superscript and the atomic number is written as subscript
What is radioactive decay? a process in which unstable nucleii lose energy by emitting radiation; unstable radioactive atoms undergo radioactive decay and form stable, non-radioactive atoms, usually of a different element.
What are the three major types of radiation? alpha, beta and gamma
How is alpha decay expressed? the emission of an alpha particle from a nucleus is alpha decay; so, the atomic number is reduced by 4 and the mass number is reduced by 2
How is beta decay expressed? in beta decay, a neutron changes into a proton, and a beta particle an electron; the atomic number stays the same and the mass number adds one
How is gamma decay expressed? results from a distribution of energy within the nucleus. Everything stays the same. Just take away the "*"
What is a half-life and how is it used in radiocarbon dating? a measure of the rate of radioactive decay for a given isotope
What is a parent isotope? is an isotope that undergoes radioactive decay
What is a daughter isotope? is the stable produce of a parent isotope decay
What is nuclear fission? a nuclear reaction in which a nucleus breaks apart producing two or more smaller nuclei, subatomic particles, and energy
How is nuclear fission used? nuclear fission is the source of energy for all nuclear power generation used today; the radioactive daughter products are a significant waste disposal problem
Why do heavy nuclei tend to be unstable? because of the repulsive forces between their many protons
What is nuclear fusion? nuclear fusion is a nuclear reaction in which small nuclei combine to produce a larger nucleus; other subatomic particles as well as energy are released in this process
How is nuclear fusion used? it ocurs at the core of the Sun and other stars.
Created by: 548656377