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# Chem 6 and 7

### Atomic Structure and Periodicity

Light electric and magnetic field through space.
Light fields are perpendicular to each other and direction of the magnetic field is determined by the right hand rule
Visible light 10^14
Microwaves 10^9-10^12
Frequency Cycles 10^6 -short waves,10^8-TV,infared,visible, UV=10^14, x ray=10^18, gamma rays
wavelength (upside down y) distance on a wave from crest to crest
Frequency (v) the number of complete waves passing through a point in a given amount of time. Higher frequency is higher energy.
Hertz the unit of measure which is waves per second
Amplitude the height or intensity of the wave
Nodes point in the wave where the intensity is equal to zero over ever 1/2 (upside down y)
Traveling Waves like at a football game
Transverse Wave a compression wave = sound
Standing or Stationary Wave similar to two people holding a jump rope in two stationary positions
Plank Equation (E=h v) energy is quantized, energy comes in packets. A packet called a photon.
E = hv E= hv=[(h)(c/wavelength)
Velocity (frequency)(wavelength),,,,,C=v(wavelength)...c=2.9x10^8.
E= units (J sec) h=6.62x10^-34
Atomic Line Spectra Excitation of elements will give rise to line spectra or spectra of various ranges much like red is not observed in a sodium vapor lamp
(A)E =Efinal - Eintial En=R(h)c/n^2....n is principal quantum number,shell...R=2.179e-18 J/atom
Quantum Mechanical Principle a. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle states that it is impossible to determine both the position and the momentum of the electron with comple accuracy orbitals describe the probability of finging an electron in a particular region of space rather than its exact location
Quantum Mechanical Principle b. Pauli Exclusion Principle States that no two electrons in an atom can have the same four quantum numbers
Quantum Mechanical Principle c. Hund's Rule states that electrons prefer to occupy different orbitals and have a parallel spin rather than pair up in the same orbital and have opposite spins. Electrons will fill a subshell with parallel spins before pairing up
Hund's Rule diamagnetism and paramagnetism
Atomic Radius is equal to one-half the distance between the centers of two atoms of that element that are just touching each other. decreases from left to right, increases from top to bottom
Hybridization formation of a set of hybrid orbitals with favorable directional characteristics by mixing together two or more valence orbitals of the same atom
Ionization Energy energy required to completely remove an electron from a gases atom or ion increases from left to right, decreases from top to bottom
Electron Affinity energy change that occurs when an electron is added to a gaseous atom, and it represents the ease with which the atom can accept an electron. The stronger the attractive pull of the nucleus for electrons, the greater the electron affinity will be.
Electronegativity measure of the attraction an atom has for the electrons in a chemical bond. THe greater the electronegativity, the greater its attraction to bonding elements. Increases from left to right, decreases from top to bottom
Created by: 475358299303489