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Chemistry Revision

Chemistry Revision for Year 10 Term 2 Test

QuestionAnswer
What is an ELEMENT? A substance that only contains one type of atom
How does the PERIODIC TABLE work? Elements with similar properties are in vertical columns called 'Groups'. All elements in one group have the same number of electrons in their outer shell
What is a COMPOUND? A combination of more than one type of atom
What is COVALENT bonding? Sharing electrons for form molecular compounds (non- metals)
What is IONIC bonding? Giving or receiving electrons to form ions (metals and non- metals)
What are the PROPERTIES of LIMESTONE? A chemical sedimentary rock, doesn't rot when wet and fire- resistant
What are the SOCIAL impacts of QUARRYING LIMESTONE? Creates jobs for local people and can improve health facilities, can cause traffic through transporting the limestone and the dust produced can cause breathing problems
What are the ECONOMIC impacts of QUARRYING LIMESTONE? Locally produced materials and available, making it cheap. Provides more jobs making an overall local improvement on roads, recreation facilities etc. Concrete from limestone can be used for construction and housing
What are the ENVIRONMENTAL impacts of QUARRYING LIMESTONE? Huge holes in the landscape, destroys the habitats of animals, causes pollution through burning, can neutralize acidity in lakes and rivers
What are the stages of the LIMESTONE CYCLE? Calcium Carbonate (Limestone) < HEAT < Calcium Oxide < WATER < Solid Calcium Hydroxide < WATER AND FILTER < Calcium Hydroxide Solution (Limewater) < CARBON DIOXIDE < Limestone
What is a DECOMPOSITION REACTION? When a chemical reaction causes a substance to break down into two separate elements or compounds
What are the uses of the PRODUCTS of LIMESTONE? (Cement; Mortar; Concrete?) Can be powdered and heated in a kiln with powdered clay to make cement for roads. Can be mixed with sand and water to make mortar for brick- laying. Can mix cement with sand and water and stones (aggregate) to make concrete for buildings.
What are the PROPERTIES of the TRANSITION METALS? Strong, malleable, good conductors of heat and electricity, hard to break. Can corrode.
How are GOLD and IRON EXTRACTED from the earths' crust? Extracted by reduction using carbon, to remove oxygen from the ore, for example in a blast furnace
How are the ATOM ARRANGEMENTS in IRON and STEEL linked to their PROPERTIES? Iron is an element that has full shells so it isn't very reactive whereas steel is a covalent compound of different elements so is more reactive
What is an ALLOY? A mixture of two elements (metal or non- metal) to create a material with selected properties
How do the PROPERTIES of COPPER make it SUITABLE for it's uses? A good conductor of electricity and ductile so ideal for wires. Malleable and doesn't react with water so for pipes and tanks
How is COPPER EXTRACTED from it's ORES? Electrolysis- once it is reduced with carbon, t goes through this process to make it pure. In water, electrons are taken by the positive electrode and the copper gains electrons from the negative electrode and turned back into copper atoms.
Give reasons for the uses of ALUMINIUM and TITANIUM and what are the BENEFITS of recycling them? They're both light and low density and strong, Titanium is corrosion- resistant and aluminum is malleable. They can be re used for other transport through recycling as they're hard- wearing.
Why are ALUMINIUM and TITANIUM difficult to EXTRACT? They both have a rather high reactivity
What is CRUDE OIL? A mixture of hydrocarbons and compounds that aren't chemically bonded to each other, so they still have their original properties.
How does FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION work? Heated crude oil is pumped into the bottom of the fractioning column, and the various fractions vaporize and condense at different levels to separate them
What is the FORMULA for alkane METHANE? CH4
What's the FORMULA for alkane PROPANE? C2H6
What's the FORMULA for alkane ETHANE? C3H8
What are the PRODUCTS of BURNING HYDROCARBONS and how do they IMPACT on the ENVIRONMENT? Produces greenhouse gases and climate change, pollution
What are the PRO'S and CON'S of using PLANT OILS to produce FUELS? PROS Renewable, locally available, cheap, a use for used cooking oils, transfer large amounts of energy and are carbon neutral CONS limited if the plants aren't regrown, destroys habitats and could damage cars
How are the MASS and ATOMIC number of an ELEMENT represented on THE PERIODIC TABLE? The mass number is on the top of the symbol, which is the total of protons and neutrons. The bottom number is the atomic number which is the amount of protons (and electrons)
How are alkanes structured? Chains of carbon atoms surrounded by hydrogen atoms
Created by: AJLANE