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Chapter 1

Ratio and Proportional Reasoning

Rate A ratio that compares two quantities with different kinds of units Ex: boys to girls, dollars to pounds, miles per hour
Unit Rate when a rate is simplified so it has a denominator of one unit ex: $24/6bottles = $4 per bottle or $4/1 bottle
Complex fractions fractions with a numerator, denominator or both that are also fractions
Dimensional Analysis the process of including the units of measure as factors when you compute
Proportional if two quantities have a constant ratio or unit rate
Non-proportional two quantities where the relationship is not constant
Equivalent ratios ratios that have the same value ex: 4/10 = 12/30 = 2/5
Coordinate plane a type of grid that is formed when two number lines intersect at their zero points.
Quadrants The four regions formed when the number lines intersect at their zero points
Ordered pair a pair of numbers used to locate or graph points on the coordinate plane ex: (3, -2)
Proportion an equation stating that two ratios or rates are equivalent.
rate of change a rate that describes how one quantity changes in relation to another
constant rate of change (slope) if the rate of change between any two quantities is the same (m = change in y over change in x)
slope (constant rate of change) the constant rate of change (m = change in y/change in x)
Direct Variation (pre-algebra only) when two variable quantities have a constant ratio
Constant of Variation (constant of proportionality) - pre-algebra only the constant ratio y=kx The "k" is the constant of proportionality or constant of variation
similar figures - pre-algebra only two polygons where their corresponding angles are congruent and their corresponding sides are proportional
scale - pre-algebra only determined by the ratio of a given length on a drawing or model to its corresponding actual length
scale factor - pre-algebra only a scale written as a ratio without units in simplest form
indirect measurement - pre-algebra only when distances or lengths are difficult to measure directly you use the properties of similar polygons and proportions
Created by: msdigits