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AP Chem chapter four

definitions for chapter four AP

weak acid acid that dissociates only slightly in aqueous solutions
weak base base that reacts with water to produce hydroxide ions to only a slight extent in aqueous solutions.
molarity number of moles of solute per volume of solution in liters
standard solution solution whose concentration is accurately known
dilution process of adding solvent to lower the concentration of solute in a solution
precipitation reaction reaction in which an insoluble substance forms and separates from the solution
precipitate solid that forms in a precipitation reaction
formula equation equation representing a reaction in solution showing reactants and products in undissociated form whether they are strong or weak electrolytes.
complete ionic equation equation shows all substances that are strong electrolytes as ions
spectator ions ions present in solution that do not participate directly in a reaction
net ionic equation an equation for a reaction in solution, where strong electrolytes are written as ions, shoeing only those components that are directly involved in chemical change
acid substance produces hydrogen ions in solution; a proton donor
base substance that produces hydroxide ions in an aqueous solution; a proton acceptor
neutralization reaction an acid-base reaction
volumetric analysis process involving titration of one solution with another
titration technique in which one solution is used to analyze another.
stoichiometric (equivalence) point point in a titration when enough titrant has been added to react exactly with the substance in solution being titrated.
indicator chemical that changes color and is used to mark the end point of a titration
endpoint point in a titration at which the indicator changes color
oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction reaction in which one or more electrons are transferred
oxidation state concept that provides a way to keep track of electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction according to certain rules.
oxidation increase in oxidation state (loss of electrons)
reduction decrease in oxidation state (gain of electrons)
oxidizing agent (electron acceptor) reactant that accepts electrons from another reactant
reducing agent (electron donor) reactant that donates electrons to another substance to reduce the oxidation state of one of its atoms.
Created by: mrsklann