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Basics of Chemistry

Chapter 6 - Standard Esthetics

The science that deals with the composition,structure and properties of matter with how matter changes under differnet conditions. chemistry
What are the two branches of chemistry? organic and inorganic
The study of substances that contain carbon. organic chemistry
The branch of chemistry dealing with compounds that do not contain carbon. inorganic chemistry
Metals, minerals, pure water and clean are are examples of what kind of substances? inorganic
Gasloline, plastics, synthetic fabrics, pesticides, and fertilizers ar all what kind of substance? organic
Any substance that occupies space and has mass (weight). matter
Has physical properties that we can touch, taste, smell or see. matter
The simplest form of matter and cannot be broken down into a simpler substance without loss of intentity. an element
There are about ____ naturlly occuring ________, each with its own distictive physical and chemical properties. 90; elements
Identified by a a letter symbol, such as O for _____, C for _____, and H for _____. elements; oxygen, carbon, hydrogen
The structural units that make up elements. atoms
Particles from which all matter is composed. atoms
The smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that element. an atom
Atoms consist of which smaller particles? protons, neutrons and electrons
Which particles of the atom have a positive electrical charge? protons
Which particles of the atom have a neutral electrical charge? neutrons
Which particles of the atom have a negative electrical charge? electrons
Formed by joining two or more atoms chemically. molecules
What are the two types of molecules? elemental molecules and compound molecules
Contain two or more atoms of the same element that are united chemically. elemental molecules
The molecule that is made of the same element is called what kind of molecule? elemental
Are chemical combinations of two or more atoms of different elements that are united chemically. compound molecules (aka) compounds
Name the three physical forms of matter. solid, liquid or gas
The three differnet physical forms of matter are called what? states of matter
The difference in the physical forms of each state of matter depends on what? temperature
Change in the form or physical properties of a substance without a chemical reaction or the formation of a new substance. physical change
These have a definite size (volume) and a definite shape. solid (state of matter)
These have a definite size (volume) but not a definite shape. liquid (state of matter)
These do not have a definite size (volume) or a definite shape. gases (state of matter)
Those characteristics that can be determined without a chemical reaction and that do not cause a chemical change in the identity of the substance. (ex: salad, water) physical change
A change in the chemical composition of a substance, in which a new substance or substances are formed having properties differnet from the original. (ex: bread, cake) chemical change
These properties include color, odor, weight, density, specific gravity, melting point, boiling point and hardness. physical properties
These properties include iron and burning wood. chemical properties
This chemical reaction creates a chemical change in the identity of the substance. oxidation
The protective lipids and secretions on top of the skin. acid mantle
When an acid is mixed with an alkali, also called a base, in equal proportions to neutralize each other and form water (H2O) and a salt. acid-alkalie neutralization
Substances that have a pH below 7.0, taste sour, andturn limus paper from blue to red. acids
the gaseous mixture that makes up the earth's atomsphere. air
It is orderless, colorless, and generally consists of 1 part oxygen and 4 parts nitrogen by volume. air
Also called bases. alkalies
Have a pH above 7.0, taste bitter and turn litmus paper from red to blue. alkalies
Free radical scavengers, vitamins, and ingredients. antioxidants
Inhibit oxidation. antioxidants
Are used both to help the condition of the skin and to stop the oxidation that causes products to turn rancid and spoil. antioxidants
The smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of an element. atoms
Rapid oxidation of any substance, accompanied by the production of heat and light. combustion
An unstable mixture of two or more immiscible substances united with the aid of an emulsifier. emulsions
"Super" oxidixers free radicals
Cause an oxidation reaction and produce a new one of these in the process. free radicals
Are created by highly reactive atoms or molecules (often oxygen) ha ving an unpaired number of electrons. free radicals
Are unstable and can damage to DNA, causing inflammation and disease in the body. free radicals
Colorless, orderless, tasteless gas hydrogen
The lightest element known hydrogen
Chemical compound of hydrogen and oxygen. hydrogen peroxide
A colorless liquid with a characteristic odor an slightly acid taste. hydrogen peroxide
Not capable of being mixed. immiscible
Capable of combining with or attacting water. hydrophilic
Having an affinity or attraction to fat and oils. lipophilic
A method of displaying data in multiples of 10. Logarithmic scale
Capable of being mixed withanother liquid in any proportion without separating. miscible
colorless, gaseous element that makes up four-fifths of the air in the atmosphere. nitrogen
Oil droplets disperesed in a water with the aid of an emulsifying agent. oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion
Chemical reaction that combines a substance with oxygen to produce oxide. oxidation
A chemical compound containing at least one oxygen atom as well as at least one other element. oxide
Describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. oxidation-reduction (redox)
One of the most common types of chemical reactions. oxidation-reduction (redox)
When oxygen is added to a substance, the substance is oxidized, i.e. rust forms when oxygen is added to iron oxidation-reduction (redox)
To combine a cause or substance to combine with oxygen. oxidize
The most abundant element on earth oxygen
Relative degree of acidity and alkalinity of a substance. pH
Combination of two or more substances united physically, not chemically, without a fixed compositions and in any proportions. physical mixture
Acronym for reduction-oxydation redox
Oxidation and redcution happening at the same time redox reactions
The loss of oxygen from a substance. reduction
A substance that is dissolved by a solvent to forma solution. solute
A uniform mixture of two or more mutally miscible (mix in all proportions) substances. solutions
The solubility of one liquid in another without separating. miscible
A liquid or gas that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution solvent
A substance that dissolves another substance to form a solution. solvent
Wetting agents that lower the surface tension of a liquid, allowing easier spreading. surfactants
Surface active agents that reduce surface tension between the skin and the product to increase product spreadability. surfactants
Allow oil and water to mix. surfactants
Detergents (cleansers) and emulsifiers surfactants
Most abundant of all substances. water
Comprising about 75% of the earth's surface and about 65% of the human body. water
A common chemical substance that is essential for the survival of all known forms of life. water
Droplets of water dispersed in oil. water-in-oil (W/O) emulsion
In a solution, the dissolved substance does not exist as a solid and the two are homogeneously mixed. suspension
Intensive mixing of mutually insoluble substances to obtain a soluble suspension or emulsion, for example homogenizing milk so that the cream doesn't separate out homogenization
Substances are said to be _________ if in any proportion, they do not form a solution. immiscible
Complete mirror images of each other, much as one's left and right hands are "the same" but opposite enantiomer
These have a positive charge and identify the atom. protons
These have no charge,are neutral; determine molecular weight. neuron
These are negative and enable atoms to unite and form bonds. electrons
Created by: heaneyl
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