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prairie st chm110

prairie state chem110 chap 2 1-28

Law of Conservation of Mass (Lavoisier) "in a chemical reaction, matter is neither created or destroyed.Mass of reactants = Mass of products
Indivisible Matter is composed of small indestructable particles (ATOMS)(Leucippus ? Democritus)
Divisible Matter is composed of some combo of air, earth, water, fire.Aristotle / Plato
Law of Definite Proportions (Proust) Elements combine in diffinate mass ratios to form compounds. No matter what the source the compound components are the same
Law of Multiple Proportions (Dalton) when two elements A&B form a 2 differnt compound that the ratio of teh elements will be a small whole number.For example, carbon and oxygen react to form CO or CO2, but not CO1.3
Proton mass 1.673x10*24, nucleus, charge +
Neutron mass 1.673x10*24, nucleus, charge o
Electron Mass 9.110x10*28 (very light) outside nucleus charge -
What defines an element The number of protons that it has
Cations positively charged atoms
Anions negativley charged ions
Isotopes atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons
Percent of natural abundance refers to the abundance isotopes of a chemical element as naturally found on a planet. The relative atomic mass (a weighted average) of these isotopes is the atomic weight listed for the element in the periodic table
35 cl17 mass# 35 +p=17 E=17 N=18
Cl-37 mass# 37, P=17 E=17 N=20
Periodic Law (Mendeleev) When elements are arranged in order of increasing mass certain sets of properties recur periodically.
Metals good conductor of heat / elec., lose electrons during chemical rxns.,left on periodic table.
Nonmetals poor conductor of heat / elec., loss electrons during chemical rxns, right on periodic table.
Metalliods Know as semiconductors, they show mixed properties.
Alkali metals Group 1A very reactive (H2,Li,Na)
Alkaline earth metals Group 2A Fairly reactive (Mg,Ca,Sr)
Halogens group 7A VERY reactive nonmetals (Cl2,F2,Br2)
Noble gasses Chemically inert gasses Unreactive (He,Ne,Ar)
Main group metals Tends to LOSE electrons, forming cations with the same # of electrons as the nearest noble gas
Main group nonmetals tends to GAINS electrons , forming an anion with the same number of electrons as the nearest noble gas
Mass spectrometry used to measure the masses of atoms and the percentage of isotopes of an element.
Created by: rjh