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Chemistry

TermDefinition
Chemistry The study of the properties of matter and how matter changes
Matter Anything that has mass and takes up space
Mass The amount of matter in an object
Volume The amount of space that matter occupies
Solid A state of matter that has a definite shape and definite volume
Liquid A state of matter that has an indefinite shape and a definite volume
Gas A state of matter that has an indefinite shape and an indefinite volume
Indefinite Does not remain the same value at all times (Ex: The volume is indefinite means the volume is not the same at all times, it changes)
Atom The basic particle from which all elements are made
Melting A phase change from solid to liquid. Heat increases and molecular motion increases.
Freezing A phase change from liquid to solid. Heat decreases and molecular motion decreases.
Evaporating (Boiling) A phase change from liquid to gas. Heat increases and molecular motion increases.
Condensing A phase change from gas to liquid. Heat decreases and molecular motion decreases.
Molecular Motion The movement of the particles that make up matter.
Definite Does remain the same value at all times (Ex: The volume is definite means the volume is the same at all times, it changes)
Phase Change A change between different states of matter. Example: Solid melting into a liquid.
State of Matter (Phase of Matter) A description for matter as a solid, liquid, or gas.
Element a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical means.
An element is made up of... only one type of atom
Electron a negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus
Atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Proton a positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom.
Neutron a particle with no charge located in the nucleus of an atom
Periodic table a chart that organizes the chemical elements based on their properties
Nucleus the positively charged, dense center of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.
Mass number the number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atom the basic unit of matter.
An atom is the smallest particle of an... element that still has all the properties of the element.
Atoms are made up of smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons
The three types of elements on the periodic table metals, non-metals, metalloids
The periodic table is organized by atomic number
Group 1 of the periodic table Alkali metals (very reactive)
Group 2 of the periodic table Alkaline earth metals
Groups 3-12 of the periodic table transition metals
Group 18 of the periodic table Noble gases
Group 17 of the periodic table Halogens (very reactive)
Metals solids at room temperature, malleable, ductile, hard, lustrous, conductors of heat and electricity.
Malleable Flexible/bendable
Ductile Can be drawn into thin wires
Luster Reflects light, looks shiny
Conductor allows the passing of heat and electricity
Non-metals Dull, brittle, insulators, gases at room temperature
Dull not lustrous
brittle breakable
insulator does not allow heat and electricity to pass through
Metalloids properties of both metals and non-metals, semi-conductors, solids at room temperature
What is the one metal that is a liquid at room temperature? Mercury, Hg
What is the one non-metal that is a liquid at room temperature? Bromine, Br
Compound A substance made of two or elements that are chemically bonded together
How is a compound different from an element? A compound is different from an element because a compound requires the chemical combination of two or more elements. When a compound is formed, it is difficult to break apart. When a compound is formed, it has different properties than both of its orig
What is a chemical reaction? A chemical reaction is the formation of new compounds.
What are the five pieces of evidence of a chemical reaction? 1. Production of an odor 2. Production of a gas 3. Formation of a precipitate 4. Temperature change 5. Color Change
What is a precipitate? A solid
If a gas is produced in a chemical reaction, what will you see? Bubbles, vapor, or steam
Mixture Two or more substances that are in the same space but are not chemically bonded.
Homogeneous mixture A mixture that looks uniform throughout
Heterogeneous mixture A mixture that does not look uniform throughout
Uniform To appear the same
Non-uniform To appear different
Solubility The ability of dissolving into a homogeneous mixture
Soluble Can dissolve
Insoluble Can't dissolve
What is the range of the pH scale? 0-14
What does pH measure? how acidic or basic a solution is
What is the range of acids on the pH scale? Greater than zero but less than 7
What is the range of bases on the pH scale? Greater than seven but less than 14
What is a neutral solution? A solution with a pH of exactly 7
How do you neutralize a base? Add an acid
How do you neutralize an acid? Add a base
dilute weak
concetrated strong
physical change any change that alters the appearance of a substance but DOES not change into a new substance
chemical change any change that produces one or more new substances