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8th- Atoms and PT

8th- Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table

atom the smallest unit of an element
proton a positively charged subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus and has a mass of 1 amu
neutron a subatomic particle found in the nucleus that does not have an electric charge and has a mass of 1 amu
electron a negatively charged subatomic particle that is found in the electron cloud surrounding the nucleus and has negligible mass
atomic mass the sum of protons and neutrons in the atom
atomic mass unit (amu) the unit in which the mass of one atom is expressed
isotope an atom with a different number of neutrons and therefore a different atomic mass
electron cloud the area around the nucleus where the electrons are; it is mostly empty space
orbitals energy levels that electrons are arranged into
valence electrons the electrons in the last shell that form chemical bonds with other atoms; they are responsible for giving the element its chemical properties
ion an atom that has gained or lost an electron
compound two or more elements bonded together
molecule smallest piece of a compound
mixture two or more substances physically combined
physical properties describe traits or characteristics of matter, such as color
chemical properties describes how an atom reacts or does not react to another
nucleus what the center of an atom is called; where protons and neutrons are found
complete describes an energy level or orbital that is full of electrons
atomic number the name for the number of protons in an atom
period a row in the Periodic Table
family a group of elements with similar properties
neutral overall charge of an atom
Lewis Structure a diagram that includes only an element symbol and valence electrons
diatomic molecule made of two identical atoms bonded together
pure substance consists of only one kind of matter
element the simplest form of matter
cation an ion that has more protons than electrons, so it has a positive charge
anion an ion that has more electrons than protons, so it has a negative charge
Created by: holtzmanscience