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Unit three chemistry

vocabulary terms for unit three

Dalton's atomic theory states that matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms; atoms are invisible and indestructible; atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass and chemical properties; atoms of a specific element are different from those of anothe
atom smallest particle of an element that retains all the properties of that element; is electrically neutral, spherically shaped, and composed of electrons, protons, and neutrons
cathode ray radiation that originates from the cathode and travels to the anode of a cathode-ray tube
electron negatively charged, fast moving particle with an extremely small mass that is found in all forms of matter and moves through the empty space surrounding an atom's nucleus.
neutron a neutral subatomic particle in an atom's nucleus that has a mass nearly equal to that of a proton.
nucleus extremely small positively charged, dense center of an atom that contains positively charged protons and neutral neutrons.
proton subatomic particle in an atoms nucleus that has a positive charge of +1
atomic mass weighted average mass of the isotopes of that element
atomic mass unit (amu) 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
atomic number the number of protons in an atom
isotope atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons
mass number number of an elements name representing the sum of its protons and neutrons.
states of matter physical forms in which all matter naturally exists on Earth- most commonly as a solid, liquid or gas
solid form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume, is incompressible and expands only slightly when heated
liquid form of matter that flows, has constant volume and takes the shape of its container
gas form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container, fills the containers entire volume and is easily compressed
vapor gaseous state of a substance that is a liquid or solid at room temperature
physical properties characteristic of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the sample's composition
extensive properties physical properties, such as mass, length and volume, this is dependent upon the amount of substance present
intensive properties physical property that remains the same no matter how much of a substance is present.
chemical properties ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into on or more new substances
physical change type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does not change its composition
phase change transition of matter from one state to another
chemical change process involving one or more substances changing into new substances also called a chemical reaction.
law of conservation of mass states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction but is conserved.
mixture physical blend of 2 or more pure substances in any proportion in which each substance retains its individual properties; can be separated by physical means.
homogenous mixture one that has a uniform composition throughout and always has a single phase; also called a solution
solution uniform mixture that can contain solids, liquids or gases also called a homogenous mixture.
filtration technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
distillation technique that can be used to physically separate most homogenous mixtures based on the differences in the boiling point of surface
crystallization separation technique that produces pure solid particles of substance from a solution that contains the dissolved substances.
sublimation energy requiring process by which a solid changes directly to a gas without first becoming a liquid
chromatography technique used to separate the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each component to travel or to be drawn across the surface of another material.
element pure substances that cannot be broken down into simple substances by physical or chemical means
periodic table chart that organizes all known elements into a grid of horizontal rows (periods) and vertical columns (groups or families) arranged by increasing atomic number.
compound chemical combination of 2 or more different elements can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means and has properties different form its component elements.
law of definite proportion states that regardless of the amount a compound is always composed of the same elements in the same proportion by mass
percent by mass percent determined by the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound
law of multiple proportions states that when different compounds are formed by combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same mass of the other element in a ratio of small whole numbers
heterogeneous mixture one that does not have a uniform composition and in which the individual substance remain distinct
electron dot structure consists of an elements symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons, surrounded by dots, representing the atoms valence electrons
valence electron electrons in an atoms outermost orbitals; determine the chemical properties of an element
Hund's rule state the single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals
Pauli exclusion principle states that the maximum of two electrons can occupy a single atomic orbital but only if the electrons have opposite spins.
Aufbau principle states that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital available
electron configuration the arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by 3 rules; Aufbau, Pauli exclusion, and Hund's rule
energy sublevels energy levels contained within a principal energy level
principal energy level major energy levels of an atom
ground state lowest allowable energy state of an atom
atomic orbital three dimensional region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electrons probable location.
Created by: mrsklann