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BJ Chem Ch on Water

What intermolecular bond types do water molecules exhibit? hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole, dispersion
What type of intramolecular bond type does water exhibit? covalent polar (O-3.5, H-2.1)
Is water polar or nonpolar? polar
What shape is a water molecule? Tetrahedral with 104.5 degree angles due to 2 sets of unbonded electrons
What type of bonding raises melting and boiling points? hydrogen bonding
A graphical way to summarize the conditions under which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas. phase diagram
set of conditions where a substance can exist in all three states: solid, liquid, and gas triple point
On a phase diagram, what variable is on the X axis Temperature (degrees C)
On a phase diagram, what variable is on the Y axis Pressure (torr)
Water is most dense at what temperature (at 1 atm) 4 degrees C
Why is water ice less dense as a solid? hydrogen bonds hold water molecules in an open hexagonal crystalline structure
water purification step where they precipitate out impurities and bacteria coagulation and settling
water purification step where they add chlorine to kill bacteria disinfection
water puriciation step where they pass the water through a bed of sand/gravel filtration
Name one approach to providing fresh water from the oceans distillation, vacuum distillation, reverse osmosis, freezing
Name one approach for bringing fresh water down from Alaska pipeline, tankers
When water molecules form is energy consumed or released? released- exothermic
the combustion of any hydrocarbon produces ? CO2 and H2O plus energy
burning of hydrogen does not produce CO2
Reactions between acids and bases produce ? a salt and water
A metal catalyst to decompose water nickel
decomposition of water gas with coal produces ? carbon monoxide CO and H2 gas
Name a commercial use for hydrogen production of ammonia, petroleum refining, and as a fuel for NASA space vehicles
Method to produce pure oxygen and hydrogen from water using electricity electrolysis
At which electrode is hydrogen produced? At the negative Cathode
At which electrode is oxygen produced? At the positive anode
An active metal and water combine to produce ? a metal hydroxide and hydrogen gas
A halogen and water combine to produce? an acid
Which halogen can displace oxygen in the water molecule fluorine
water incorporated into the crystal structure is called the water of hydration
Name for CuSO4 - 5 H2O Copper Sulfate Pentahydrate
Name for Ba(OH)2 - 8 H2O Barium hydroxide octahydrate
substances that can remove water from the air hygroscopic
airtight containers to prevent water from the air being absorbed by hygroscopic substances desiccators
process of attracting enough water to completely dissolve deliquescence
drying agents dessicants
Name one drying agent that are also deliquescent CaCl2, Mg(ClO4)2, and P2O5
process where hydrates lose water when exposed to air efflorescence
Name one reaction which produces water acid and base, combustion of hydrogen, combusion to a hydrocarbon
Which element/ion is put in water supplies to help disinfect the water? chlorine/chloride
Which element/ion is put in water supplies to help reduce teeth cavities? flourine/fluoride
compounds that can react with water in composition reactions anhydrides
metal oxides are called basic anhydrides
nonmetal oxides are called acidic anhydrides
Potassium oxide is a ______ _________ basic anhydride
sulfur dioxide is a _______ ________ acid anhydride
Created by: MArCHChemBJ