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B-2 Science

Study Guide

state of matter The state (gas, liquid, or solid) that a piece of matter (anything that can be identified as “something) is in; can be changed and reversed
solid In which the particles of the matter are tightly packed together, so space in between and stiff bonds; not easy to break apart.
liquid In which the particles of the matter are loosely packed together, can slide around a little but are still somewhat connected.
gas In which the particles of the matter are not packed together at all, are free-moving and fast, and only react through collisions.
atom The smallest unit of matter that can still be identified as that type/state of matter.
proton In the nucleus of the atom, and are positively charged; are the same number as the electrons // determines identity of the atom.
neutron Also in the nucleus of the atom; do not have any charge, are neutral // determines stability of the atom.
nucleus The center of an atom; contains neutrons and protons.. the control center.
electron Orbit the nucleus of the atom in rings; how many shells there are is how big the “cloud” of electrons will be.
electron cloud Filled with the possible locations and targets of the orbiting electrons; size is determined on how many shells there are.
valence electron The electron(s) on the outermost ring / orbit of the electron cloud area; the ones(s) on the very outside // determines re-activity of the atom.
Periodic Table of Elements A table that was created in order to be able to sort the known elements into groups / families based on chemical properties that they had in common.
reactivity The amount or what type of reaction something will give off when exposed to other substances or chemicals.
atomic number The atomic number of an element is the number of protons (and electrons because # of protons is the same) in the atom
mass number The total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of the atom; added together.
atomic mass The mass of an atomic particle, sub-atomic particle, or molecule; usually expressed in amu.
element Are sorted into a periodic table; all matter in the known universe is made of these. (Somewhere around 90 known naturally occurring elements.)
Created by: tshu31