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chemistry c

chapter 4

Mg Magnesium
H Helium
Ag Silver
F Fluorine
Cr Chromium
Zn Zinc
Al Aluminum
Si silicone
Br Bromine
Se Selenium
K Potassium
A horizontal row of elements on the perodic table Period
An element with little or no luster that is poor conductor of heat and electricity nonmetal
a number that appears at the top of each vertical column (group) in the periodic table group number
an element that is shiny, malleable, ductile, and a good conducter of heat and electricity metal
an element in the center of the periodic table that has a group number of 3 through 12 transition element
An arrangement of elements by increasing atomic number periodic table
An element in group 7A (17) halogen
Li,C, and O The same period
Al, Si, and Cl the same period
Mg, Ca, and Ba the same group
Li, Na, and K the same group
Mg Magnesium,Group 2A, period 3, Metal, 2
Carbon, C Group 4A, period 2, nonmetal, 14
N Nitrogen, Group 5A, period 2, nonmetal, 15
Sulfur, S Group 6A, 16, Period 3, nonmetal
Sb Anitomy, group 5A, period 5, metalloid, 15
H Hydrogen, group 1A, period 1, nonmetal
Cl nonmetal
O nonmetal
P nonmetal
Ca metal
Fe metal
Si metalloid
Al meatl
Zn metal
Atom smallest particle that retains the characteristics of an element
Where are electrons located ? outside the nucleus and have a mass much smaller than the mass of proton or neutron
what kind of charge do protons have ? positive
what kind of charge do neutrons have? electrically neautral
what kind of charge do electrons have ? negative
Atomic number number of protons in every atomof an element
Neutral atoms number of electrons equal the number of protons
Mass number total number of neutrons and protons in an atom
how to find the number of neutrons massnumber-- atomic number
found in the nucleus of an atom proton and neutron
has a 1- charge electron
is found outside the nucleus electron
has a mass of about 1 amu proton and neutron
all matter is composed of atoms
atoms can combine to form compounds
Sc scandium
Ti titanium
V vanadium
Mn manganese
Iron Fe
Cobalt Co
Ni nickle
Cu copper
Galium Ga
Ge Germanium
Rb rubidium
Strontium Sr
Y yttrium
Zr Zirconium
Nb niobium
An atom of Carbon 6
An atom with 9 neutrons and a mass number of 19 10
Isotopes Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons but diffrent numbers of neutrons
As arsenic
Kr krypton
Rb rubidium
Sr strontium
Halogen an element in group 7A (17)
Describe the shape of the orbital 1s sperical
describe the shape of the orbital 2p two lobes
describe shape of orbital 5s sperical
how to get the mass number sum of number of protons + the number of neutrons
write atomic symbol for 15 protons and 16 neutrons 15+16=31 element is phosphurus 31/15P
tungsten W
Niobium Nb
Molybdenum Mo
technetium Tc
Ruthenium Ru
Rhodium Rh
Palladium Pd
Mercury Hg
Hafnium Hf
Barium Ba
Cesium Cs
Indium In
cadmium Cd
Bismuth Bi
maximum number of electrons in the 2p orbital 2
maximum number of orbital in 3p 6
maximum number of orbitals in the 5d level 10
maximum number in n=4 energy level 32
orbitals in the 3d sublevel 5
orbitals in the n=3 energy level 9
lead Pb
maximum number of electrons for 3p sublevel 6
maximum number of electrons for 3d sublevel 10
maximum number of electrons for the 4f sublevel 14
A block of 14 elements in the rows at the bottom of the periodic table f block
a list of the number of electrons in each sublevel within an atom arranged by increasing energy electron configuration
the elements in group 1A and 2A in which the electrons fill the s orbital s block
contains electrons of identical energy sublevel
the block of ten elements from groups 3B to 2B d block
the representation of an atom that shows valence electrons as dots around the symbol of the elements lewis symbol
a measure of how easily an element loses a valence electron ioniztion energy
the electrons in the highest energy level of an atom valence electrons
the number at the top of each vertical column in the periodic table group number
a region around the nucleus where electrons are most likely to be found orbital
symbol for beta particle B
symbol for alpha particle 4/2HE
An atom that emits radiation radioisotope
symbol for positron B+
symbol for gamma radiation y
contains two protons and two neutrons alpha particle
has a mass number of 0 and a 1+ charge beta particle
does not penetrate the skin alpha particle
requires sheilding protection gamma particle
can be very harmful if ingested alpha particles
Rad (radiation absorbed dose) is a unit that measures the amount of radiation absorbed by a gram of material such as body tissue
Rem (radiation equivalent in humans) measures biological effects of diffrent kind of radiation
1Gy= 100 rad
1Sv= 100rem
can be measured in rad absorbed dose
can be measured in mrem biological damage
can be measured in Gy absorbed dose
activity can be measured in mCi activity
alpha particles are composed of protons and neutrons
the charge on a alpha particle +2
beta particles are electrons
the nuclear process that occurs in the sun fusion
tera 12
giga 9
mega 6
kilo 3
deci -1
centi -2
nano -9
micro -6
milli -3
atomic size decreases left to right increases top to bottom
ionization energy increases left to right decreases top to bottom
metallic character inceases top to bottom decreases left to right