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AQA A2 Transition

Transition metals

QuestionAnswer
What is the shape of [Cu(H2O)6]+2? Octahedral
Name and give the formula of an Octahedral shaped complex [Cu(H2O)6]+2 hexaaquacopper(II) ions Did you remember the oxidation state in roman numeral?
Name a tetrahedral shaped complex TetraChloroNickel(II) ions; [Ni(Cl)4]-2 Did you remember the oxidation state in roman numeral? Have you worked out correctly the overall charge of the complex?
Name a square planar complex TetraCyanoNickel(II) ions; [Ni(CN)4]-2 Did you remember the oxidation state in roman numeral? Have you worked out correctly the overall charge of the complex?
Name a bidentate ligand ethanedioate ion or 1,2diaminoethane. But can do draw their structure?
Name an hexadentate ligand EDTA
Name neutral ligands H2O,NH3
Define a ligand a chemical able to donate a lone pair of electron to form a dative covalent bond with a central metal ion
What is the shape of a complexe with H2O ligands? octahedral
What is the shape of a complexe with CN- ligands? square planar
What is the shape of a complexe with Cl- ligands? always tetrahedral (because the chloride ions are so big and repel each other)
What is the coordination number of [Cu(H2O)6]+2 ? 6
What is the coordination number of [CuCl4]-2 ? 4
What is the coordination number of [Ag(NH3)2]+1 ? 2
What is the coordination number of [Cr(C2O4)2(H2O)2]-2 ? 6; did you recognise C2O4 as the ethanedioate ion, a bidentate ligand?
What is the coordination number of [Ni(en)3]+2 ? 6; did you recognise en as NH2CH2CH2NH2 ethanediamine, a bidentate ligand?
What type of ligands must you have to have optical isomerism on an octahedral complex? 3 bidentate ligands OR 2bidentate and 2 monodentate OR one hexadentate
How do you draw optical isomers? draw the octahedral shape first; place the bidentate ligands around the metal; then draw the mirror image
What type of ligands must you have to have cis/trans isomerism on an octahedral complex? 2 Define a cis-isomerism using [CoCl2(NH3)4]+ as an example
Define a cis-isomerism using [CoCl2(NH3)4]+ as an example when two Cl- ligands are at 180 of each other
Name and give the formula of the yellow precipitate formed when Sodium Hydroxide is added to a metal ion solution Iron(III)Hydroxide (have you remembered the charge/oxidation number on the Iron?) Fe(OH)3
Name and give the formula of the blue precipitate formed when Sodium Hydroxide is added to a metal ion solution Copper(II)Hydroxide (have you remembered the charge/oxidation number on the Iron?) Cu(OH)2
Name and give the formula of the pale green precipitate formed when Sodium Hydroxide is added to a metal ion solution Iron(II)Hydroxide (have you remembered the charge/oxidation number on the Iron?) Fe(OH)2
Name and give the formula of the deep blue solution formed when concentrated is added to a metal ion solution TetraAmineCopper(II) [Cu(NH3)4]+2 ; you can also write [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2]+2
How do you write the electronic configuration of an ion? you writethe electronic configuration of the atom, as 3dx 4s2; then you remove the 4s first!
What is the electronic configuration of Fe+2 ions [Ar] 3d6 Did you take away the 4s2? Have you written the "6" as a superscript?
What is the electronic configuration of Cu+2 ions [Ar] 3d9 Did you take away the 4s2? Have you written the "9" as a superscript?
What is the electronic configuration of Cu atoms [Ar] 3d10 4s1 It is an exception to the usual electron configuration!!!
What is the electronic configuration of Cr atoms [Ar] 3d5 4s2 It is an exception to the usual electron configuration!!!
Why do transition metals form at least +2 ions (except copper who has a stable +1 ion)? Because the sum of the first two ionisation enthalpies is very low.
What must you remember when drawing a complex ion? most likely to be octahedral (3D) shape; the lone pair on the ligand; the charge & brackets on the overall complex; the oxygen of water faces the metal
What happens when you add diluted Hydrochloric acid to a solution of Copper(II) ion? Nothing!
What happens when you add CONCENTRATED Hydrochloric acid to a solution of Copper(II) ion? There is a ligand exchange (H2O--> Cl-)
What is the name of TiCl6-? HexaChloroTitanium(II) Did you remember the oxidation state in roman numeral?
What is the formula of PentaAquaMonoHydroxoChromium(III) ions? [Cr(H2O)5(OH)]+2 Did you work out the overall charge correctly?
What are the colour of Vanadium ions from oxidation states +2 to +5 Yellow Blue Green Violet
Name and give the formula of a blue precipitate when dilute Sodium Hydroxide is added to a metal Copper(II)Hydroxide; Cu(OH)2 it could also be Cobalt(II)Hydroxide Co(OH)2
Name and give the formula of a blue precipitate (that turns beige when left standing)when dilute Sodium Hydroxide is added to a metal Cobalt(II)Hydroxide Co(OH)2
Name and give the formula of a green precipitate when dilute Sodium Hydroxide is added to a metal Iron(II)Hydroxide; Fe(OH)2
Name and give the formula of a yellow precipitate when dilute Sodium Hydroxide is added to a metal Iron(III) Hydroxide; Fe(OH)3
Name and give the formula of a green precipitate when dilute Ammonia is added to a metal the green precipitate is key: Iron(II)Hydroxide; Fe(OH)2 Ammonia acted as a weak base and removed protons from the water ligands
Name and give the formula of a blue precipitate when dilute Ammonia is added to a metal Copper(II)Hydroxide; Cu(OH)2 Ammonia acted as a weak base and removed protons from the water ligands
Name and give the formula of the species formed when concentrated Ammonia is added to Copper(II)ions TetraAminoCopper(II) ions; [Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2}+2
Why does a green precipitate turn brown by the next day? The Iron (II) Fe(OH)2 precipitate is OXIDISED by OXYGEN in the air into Iron(III)/Fe(OH)3
What is the state and colour of Copper(II)Hydroxide; Cu(OH)2 blue precipitate
What is the state and colour of Iron(II)Hydroxide; Fe(OH)2 green precipitate that turns brown when left standing
What is the state and colour of Iron(III) Hydroxide; Fe(OH)3 brown precipitate
Name and give the formula of a green precipitate when dilute Ammonia is added to a metal the green precipitate is key: Iron(II)Hydroxide; Fe(OH)2 Ammonia acted as a weak base and removed protons from the water ligands
Name and give the formula of a blue precipitate when dilute Ammonia is added to a metal Copper(II)Hydroxide; Cu(OH)2 Ammonia acted as a weak base and removed protons from the water ligands
Describe how cisplatin works by binding to the DNA of fast growing cancer cells
What type of isomerism is shown in [Pt(NH3)2(Cl)2], a square planar complexe? cis-trans
What is the transition metal invoved when a solution goes from blue to green on addition of concentrated HCl? Cu(II); have you learned the colours yet?
Define a catalyst A chemical that speeds up a reaction without getting used up (ie the catalyst is REFORMED at the end) by providing an ALTERNATE ROUTE of a lower activation energy
Why do transition metals make good catalyst? They have different oxidation states and can form complexes with reactants
Define homogeneous catalyst When the reactants and the CATALYST are in the same state (ie both aqueous)
What is the formula of Sulfide ion? S-2 You did not say (SO4)-2, did you? that is SulfATE ions!
What is the Oxidation number of Sulfur in Sulfate ions? (SO4)-2; sulfur is +6
What is the oxidation number of Chromium in (Cr2O7)-2 ions +7
What is the name of FeCO3 Iron(II)Carbonate Did you remember the oxidation state in roman numeral?
What is the formula of Iron(III)Nitrate Fe(NO3)3 It is all about swapping the charges; Nitrate is (NO3)-
Which ion is pale green in water [Fe(H2O)6]+2
Which ion is yellow in solution? [Fe(H2O)6]+3
Describe a redox titration procedure MnO4- in burette; PIPETTE Fe+2 in conical flask; open tap; drop by drop near end-point; record volume when colour in conical flask changes to PERSISTENT pink; repeat until concordant (within 01.cm3)
A 1.2g iron nail is dissolved in 250cm3; 22.4cm3 of 0.005mole.dm-3 is needed to titrate a 25 cm3. What is the concentration? moles MnO4-=22.4/1000*0.005 moles; Fe+2=5xmolesMnO4;moles in 250cm3=molesFe+2 x 10;mass Fe=moles in 250cm x RAM;%Fe = mass Fe /1.2g x 100
State 3 properties of transition metals Coloured, Complexes, Catalysts
Define a transition metal When a metal forms an ION with a partially filled in d-block orbital
What metal is used as a catalyst in the Haber process? Iron
What metal is used as a catalyst in the Contact process where SO2 becomes SO3? Vanadium(V)oxide, V2O5
What metal is used as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of AlkEnes? Nickel
What metal is used as a catalyst in the decomposition of H2O2? Manganese(IV)Oxide MnO2
What is the colour of ZnSO4 solution? colourless because Zn+2 ions are NOT transition metals (full d-block)
Describe the shape of the complexe of the haemoglobin complexe 4 Nitrogen atoms in a square around the central Fe+2 ion; the globin protein acts as another ligand and the oxygen forms the last dative covalent bond
Why are hexadentate complexes so stable? when they form from a solution by ligand exchange, 6 molecules of H2O are displaced, creating massive entropy change
Why are Chloro Complexes tetrahedral? The chlorIDE IONS are large and repel each other
How do you recognise a trans complex? Two identical ligands are on opposite side of the central metal ion
How do you recognise a cis complex? Two identical ligands are on opposite side of the central metal ion
Name a linear complex [Ag(NH3)2]+ aka Tollens reagent
How do you draw a complex with a bidentate ligand such as (C2O4)-2? 1) Draw the octahedral 3D shape; 2) Draw the TWO oxygen with lone pair attaching on adjacent bonds; 3) join the two oxygen and draw the skeleton O-C-C-O; 4) add the =O (double bond to another oxygen) on the Carbons
Why are transition metals coloured? When involved in a complex, the d-orbitals of the metal split; 2) one e- can move up energy levels 3) to do so, the e- absorbs some light energy from the visible spectrum; 4) whatever wavelength is NOT absorbed is TRANSMITTED
Why is Copper solution blue? Because the Copper aqau complex absorbs ALL wavelengths of the visible spectrum, except blue; wavelength from the blue part of the em spectrum are transmitted
Describe the colourimetry procedure Make up a 5 solutions so the approximate concentration of the unknown falls within the range of the 5 solutions; select a filter of a colour opposite to the unknown on the colour wheel; plot absorbances vs concentr; record unknown absorbance and use graph
what is autocatalysis? Give an example When one of the product of the reaction is also the catalyst of the reactio; MnO4- with ethanedioic acid
Fe+2 catalyses the following reaction: S2O8- + 2I- --> I2 + 2(SO4)-2; write the two equations to show the mechanism Fe+2 + S2O8- --> 2 SO4-2 + Fe+3 Fe+3 + 2I- --> I2 + Fe+2 You should be given the electrode potential for this type of question
Why are solution of Metal(III) ions acidic? Because the metal ion is small and highly charged so it pulls the electrons from the dative covalent bond to H2O; the O-H bond in turn is weakened and H+ is liberated
Why is a precipitate of Fe(OH)3 [orFe(OH)2] formed when you add Ammonia to Fe(III) [or Fe(II)]? Ammonia acts as a base and will take away a proton (H+) from one, two, three water ligand
Why is Fe(OH)3 precipitate formed when you add Na2CO3 to a solution of Fe(III)? (rather than Fe2(CO3)3) As Fe+3 is small and charge ions, it attract e- from the H2O and the O-H bonds become polarised; (CO3)-2
Why does a solution of Fe(III) fizz when you add Na2CO3 but not a solution of Fe(II)? (write the equations) 2 [Fe(H2O)6]+3 + 3 CO3-2 --> 2 [Fe(H2O)3(OH)3] + 3 CO2 + 3 H2O [Fe(H2O)6]+2 + CO3-2 --> FeCO3 + 6 H2O
What is an amphoteric chemical? Give an example A chemical that can react with both an acid and a base. For example Aluminium Hydroxide Al(OH)3
Write the equation for the reaction between Aluminium Hydroxide and Hydrochloric acid [Al(H2O)3(OH)3]+3 + 3 HCl --> [Al(H2O)6]+3 + 3 Cl-
Write the equation for the reaction between Aluminium Hydroxide and Sodium Hydroxide [Al(H2O)3(OH)3]+3 + OH- --> [Al(OH)4]- + 3 H2O
Created by: UrsulineChem