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AP chem chapter two

vocabulary terms for chapter two

TermDefinition
alkali metals group 1a metal
alkaline earth metal group 2a metal
anion negative ion
atomic masses also called atomic weights
atomic number number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic weight weighted average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring isotope
Avogadro's hypothesis at the same temperature and pressure equal volumes of different gases contain the same number of particles
Ball-and-stick model molecular model that distorts the sizes of atoms but shows bond relationships clearly
cathode-ray tubes partially evacuated tubes
cation positive ion
chemical bond force, or more accurately, the energy that holds 2 atoms together
chemical formula representation of a molecule in which the symbols for the elements are used to indicate types of atoms present and subscripts are used to show the relative number of atoms.
covalent bond type of bond in which electrons are shared by atoms
electrons negatively charged particle that moves around the nucleus of an atom
group (family) vertical column of elements having same valence electron configuration and showing similar properties.
halogens group 7a element
ion atom or group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge
ionic bond electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions
ionic solid solid containing cations and anions that dissolves in water to give a solution containing the separated ions, which are mobile and thus free to conduct an electric current.
isotopes atoms of the same element (same number of protons) with different number of neutrons- they have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers.
law of conservation of mass mass is neither created nor destroyed
law of multiple proportions law stating that when 2 elements form a series of compounds, the ratios of the masses of the 2nd element that combines with 1 gram of the 1st element can always be reduced to small whole numbers.
mass number total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an atom
metal element that gives up electrons relatively easily and is lustrous, malleable, and a good conductor of heat and electricity
molecule bonded collection of 2 or more atoms of the same or different elements
neutron particle in the atomic nucleus with a mass almost identical to the proton but with no charge
noble gases group 8a element
nonmetal element not exhibiting metallic characteristics typically accepts electrons from a metal
nuclear atom atom having a dense center of positive charge (nucleus) and electrons moving around the outside.
nucleus small dense center of positive charge in an atom
period horizontal row of elements
periodic table chart showing all the elements arrange in columns with similar chemical properties
polyatomic ions an ion containing a number of atoms
proton positively charged particles in an atomic nucleus
radioactivity spontaneous decomposition for a nucleus to form a different nucleus
space-filling model model of a molecule showing the relatives sizes of the atoms and their relative orientation
structural formula representation of a molecule in which the relative position of the atoms are shown and the bonds are indicated by lines.
law of definite proportions given compound always contains the same proportions of elements by mass
Created by: mrsklann
 

 



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