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LD Chemistry

LD Chemistry - Atomic Structure

What is an Atom? The smallest particle of matter to retain the properties of an element and have chemical & physical properties.
What is an Atom composed of? Subatomic particles called protons, neutrons, & electrons. Table O
What is A.M.U.? Atomic Mass Unit
What is the charge for a proton? +1
What is the charge for an electron? -1
What is the charge for a neutron? 0
What is the mass for a proton? 1 a.m.u.
What is the mass for an electron? 0 a.m.u
What is the mass for a neutron? 1 a.m.u.
What is the location of the proton? In the nucleus
What is the location of the electron? Outside the nucleus
What is the location of the neutron? In the nucleus
What is the atomic number used for? To identify the element, gives the number of protons in an atom. It is written in the lower left hand corner of the symbol
What is the Atomic number? Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, all atoms of the same element must have the same # protons, and # protons in the nucleus cannot change under ordinary circumstances.
All atoms are...... Electrically neutral, therefore, the number of protons equal the number of electrons.
What is the Mass Number? Number of protons and neutrons in an atom and may vary for atoms of an element. It is written in the upper right hand corner of the symbol
What are Isotopes? Atoms of the same element with different atomic mass, same # protons, # electrons, atomic number, & different atomic mass , # neutrons
What is Atomic Mass? Protons plus neutrons in the nucleus (# nucleons), may vary for a given element, & values on Periodic Table are averages of all naturally occurring isotopes.
What are the different Electron Arrangements? Bohr model for neutral atoms, electron dot diagrams, Bohr model for isotopes & Bohr models for ions
What are the types of Electron Transitions? Ground state, Excited State, & Spectral Lines
What is Ground State? Normal or lowest energy state (given on periodic table)
What is Excited State? A higher than normal energy state: to move up to the excited state an electron must Absorb energy and when an electron fall back to lower states they Emit (release) energy in the form of light (spectral lines)
What is Spectral Lines? Bands of colored light given off by atoms
What are Ions? Atoms which have acquired a charge by gaining or losing e-. # of protons never changes during ion formation. Ions form to achieve a noble gas configuration (8 valance e-)
Positive Ions Lose electrons
Negative Ions Gain electrons
What was Aristotle theory? All matter is composed of 4 elements (Earth, Air, Fire, Water) Matter has 4 properties (hotness, wetness, dryness) All matter can be converted into any form of matter
What was Democritus theory? All matter has a smallest, indivisible particle can an "atomos"
What was John Dalton's theory (Atomic Theory)? Each atom is made up of tiny fundamental particles (atoms), Atoms of a given element are identical. Atoms of different elements are different. Chemical compounds form when atoms combine with 1 another. Chemical reactions involved the rearrangement atoms
What is Henri Becquerel (Radioactivity)? Discovered radioactivity using photographic film. Alpha Particle-similar to helium nucleus; Massive/Least penetrating Beta Particle-Similar to high speed electrons Gamma Rays-Similar to high energy X-Rays; No mass/No charge, Most penetrating
What is JJ Thomson (Cathode Ray Experiment) Theory? Determine that atoms are composed of smaller charged particles Discovers the electron Postulate that a positive particle also exist Calculates the mass to charge ratio of the electron Develops the Plum Pudding Model of the atom
What is the Robert Millikan (Oil Drop Experiment) Theory? Determines the exact charge on an electron use oil droplets failing through a charged field Calculates the exact mass of an electron (9.11 x 10 ^ -28 g)
What is Ernest Rutherford (Gold Foil Experiment) Theory? Alpha particle bombarding gold foil Composed of mostly empty space Most of the mass is located in a very small, dense nucleus Nucleons (protons & neutrons make up most of mass)
What is electromagnetic radiation? Energy which travels through space in a wave like manner, at the speed of light
What is a wavelength? The distance between two consecutive peaks or troughs on a wave (1 nm = 1 x 10^-9 m)
What is frequency? the number of waves per second that pass a given point in space (1 hz = 1/second = second)
What is amplitude? the height of the wave
What is the Quantum Theory? Energy is no longer continuous. It is gained or lost in small bundles called quanta. It was proposed by Max Planck.
What is the Wave-Particle Duality? Electrons are particles that move with wave properties
What is the Bright-Line Spectra? A discontinuous spectrum of individual bands of color produced when atoms are exposed to energy sources-heat of electricity. Light is emitted when excited electrons return to the ground state. Each element has its own characteristic bright line spectrum
What is the Bohr Model? The Solar System Model Electrons move about the nucleus in shells (orbits) The further from the nucleus the more energy an electrons possesses.
What is Excited Electron Configurations? Electrons jump to higher states as they absorb energy
What are Cations? Postive ions formed by losing electrons
What are Anions? Negative ions formed by gaining electrons . Ions name end in -ide
Created by: desilva13