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Chem 105 Exam 1

Chemistry is the study of matter and the changes it undergoes
Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space
Scientific Method Process 1. Observation and description of a phenomenon 2. Hypothesis 3. Use of the hypothesis to predict the existence of other phenomena, or explain the results of new observations 4. Experimental tests of the predictions
Scientific Method fail-safe method for analyzing observations Observation - Hypothesis - Experiments (prove or disprove) - Publication (further experiments) - Conformation - Application
hypothesis educated guess
theory A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
law of nature a generalization that describes recurring facts or events in nature
Physical Sciences chemistry, physics, geology, and astronomy
biological sciences botany and zoology
Physics sciences of matter and energy and of interactions between them
Geology study of origin, history, and structure of the earth
Astronomy is the scientific study of matter in outer space.
Botany science or study of plants
zoology deals with animals and animal life including the study of structure, physiology, development, and classification of animals
Physical Chemistry chemistry is applied to physics
geochemistry chemistry of the earth is studied
biochemistry chemistry of biological entities
Basic science is research without the goal of a practical application
Applied Science science of applying the knowledge gained from one or more natural scientific fields to practical problems
Macroscopic matter large enough to be seen by the naked eye
Microscopic requires the aid of a microscope or similar instruments to be viewed
submicroscopic matter is too small to be seen even with the most powerful microscopes
Mass quantity of matter in an object
weight force that results from the attraction between matter and the earth
property anything that can be observed or measured about a sample of matter
intensive independent of the sample size such as concentration, density, and boiling and freezing points.
extensive depends on the size or amount of the sample like mass, volume and energy
elements substances containing only one kind of atom
atom smallest unit found in elements
pure substances matter with fixed composition at the submicroscopic level
compounds decomposed into simpler substances by normal chemical means
mixtures a combination of substances
heterogeneous which different substances can easily be seen within the mixture
solution a mixture of different solutions
chemical properties describe the tendency of a material to react and change into a different compound
physical properties can be measured without changing the identity of the material
physical change since it resulted in a change in only physical not chemical identity
chemical change change in which a part of the substance is being converted into a different kind of matter
chemical reaction the process in which one or more substances are converted to one or more different substances
reactants substances that undergo a change in chemical reaction
products substances that are formed in a chemical reaction
molecule smallest unit of a chemical compound that can exist independently
diatomic molecules formed from two atoms
energy is defined as the ability to do work 
potential energy energy in storage by virtue of position or arrangement
kinetic energy is the energy of objects in motion
chemical formula written combination of element symbols that represents the different atoms combined in a chemical compound
subscripts are used in chemical formulas as numbers written below the line to show the numbers or ratios of atoms in a compound
molecular formulas are chemical formulas that represent molecules with atomic symbols an subscripts
structural formulas chemical formulas that show the connections between atoms in molecules with straight lines
chemical equations describe the identities and relative amounts of both reactants and products in a chemical reaction
qualitative not numerical but are used to identify the chemical species involved
quantitative determine the amount of product formed or the amount of reactants used in a chemical reaction
accuracy agreement of the measured value with the true value of the same quantity.
John Dalton Creator of Dalton's atomic theory (1766-1844)
law of constant composition all samples of a pure substance contain the same elements in the same proportions by mass
law of multiple proportions states that the masses of one element will always combine with a fixed mass of the second element
law of conservation of mass or matter there is no detectable loss or gain in mass when a chemical reaction occurs
Nucleus contains 99% of the mass and is found in the center of the atom
nuclear model of the atom protons and neutrons are found in the nucleus of the atom and the electrons are located in a three dimensional area around at a relatively large distance away from the nucleus
atomic number number of protons in an atom rep. by letter Z.
mass number number of protons plus the number of neutrons in the nucleus of an atom and is represented by the letter
Isotopes different atoms of the same element that contain different numbers of neutrons (same z, different A)
ions new charged species
anions gain electrons, becoming negatively charged
cations lose electrons, become positively charged
Atomic mass number (u with line coming down at beginning established to compare the mass of any atom to that of the carbon 12 isotope
atomic weight weighted average mass in atomic mass units the isotopes of an element
waves repeat at regular intervals of time and distance
amplitude maximum height of the wave
wavelength is the distance between one peak and the next
frequency is the number of waves that pass a particular point in a given time period (Hz 1/s)
electromagnetic radiation consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields perpendicular to one another
constructive interference positive effect light rings
destructive interference negative effect, dark rings
excited state higher energy state
ground state lower original state
principle shells discrete energy levels
niels bohr 1911, he showed that electrons in atoms were limited to these energy levels or shells 1st shell=2 electrons, 2nd shell=8 electrons, 3rd shell=18 electrons, 4th shell=32 electron
atomic orbital is a region of 3-deminesional space where electrons exist around the nucleus
sub shells each energy shell consists of a certain number and type of orbitals grouped into Ex: S,P,D,F
aufbau principle electrons are added to atoms one at a time to available orbital with the lowest energy first
electron configuration distribution of these added electrons
Valence orbitals orbitals of the outermost or highest energy level and partially filled subtle of lower energy
valence electrons electrons found in these valence orbitals- most involved in chemical reactions
period each row of the table 1-7
groups tio of the table
metal substance that is malleable, has luster, and is a good conductor of electricity
metalloids fall along the actual line separating the metals from the nonmetals and share certain properties of both
semi-conductors weak conductors of electricty
transition metals showing a regular decrease in metallic behavior IIIB
inner transition metals are found at the bottom of the table
name for inner transition metals lanthanides (Ce-Lu( and actinides (Th-Lr)
alkaline earth metals Group 1A slightly less reactive than the alkali metals
alkali metals Group 2A very reactive, especially with water and must be handled carefully
halogens Group 7A among the most reactive nonmetals with reactivity's decreasing down the group
Noble gases VIIIa Inert gases because of their seemingly nonreactive behavior
1s^1 referring to electorn configuration, hydrogen
2s^1 lithium
ionization energy amount of energy needed to remove an electron and increases from left to right and decreased from top to bottom on the periodic table
Ernest Rutherford Gold Foil Experiment atom is mostly empty space. Over 99% of mass is found in a very small region in the nucleus. lead to modern view of the atom
Representative Elements S and P blocks
Transition Elements D and F blocks
Atomic Radii Gets smaller from left to right Gets larger from top to bottom
Ionic Radii Cations are smaller than neutral atoms, anions are larger
Extra Credit: Where did the W on the periodic table for tungsten come from? Wolfram, Tungsten's original name.
John Dalton 1. all matter is made up of small indivisible particles called atoms 2. atoms of the same element are identical; atoms of different element have different properties 3. compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine in small whole numb
Created by: dmstewart416