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Chemistry 1

1 Chemistry

Organic Compounds Any member of a large class of gaseous, liquid, or solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon
Inorganic Compounds Are of inanimate, not biological origin, and lack carbon and hydrogen atoms
Hydrolysis Reaction Process in which water is used to split a substance into smaller particles
Enzymes Are biological molecules that catalyze (increase the rates of) chemical reactions
Fluid Functions 1. Help maintain body temp & cell shape 2. Facilitate the transport of nutrients, hormones, proteins, and other molecules into cells 3. Aid in the removal of cellular metabolic waste products 4. Acts as a component in body cavities/spaces
Total Body Water Intracellular Fluid (2/3) Interstitial Fluid (around cells) (3/4 of EFC) Intravascular Fluid (liquid portion of blood) (1/4 of EFC) Transcellular (fluid in spaces/cavities) (1/3 of EFC)
Body Water in Ages Premies - 80% Newborns - 70% 6 months - 60% 2 years - 59% 10-15 years - 57% Adult - 57% Senior - 45%
Fluid Intake Food - 1600 mL Water from food - 900 mL By-products of cellular metabolism - 200 - 300 mL
Fluid Loss Breathing - 500 mL Evaporation - 600 mL Urine - 1500 mL Poop - 100 - 200 mL
TPN - IV IV Fluid that provides nutrients - glucose, protein, electrolytes, trace elements, and lipids
Diuresis Diaphoresis Tachypnea Urine loss - fluid loss Sweating a lot Breathing really heavely
Solution Homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances (solute & solvent)
Solvent Medium in which the solvent dissolves in (e.g. water)
Solute Substance dissolved in a solvent to form a solution (e.g. kool aid powder & sugar)
Solubility Maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent (e.g. how much kool aid can dissolve in water). Given in g solute/100g H20
3 Factors of solubility 1. Nature of the solute/solvent 2. Temperature (e.g. heating up water to put more kool aid in it) 3. Pressure (Henry's Law)
Henry's Law - Solubility & Pressure Relationship Solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of that gas above the surface of the solution (e.g. pop - bottled up under pressure; when we open it the gas releases = gets flatter)
3 types of solutions based on solubility 1. Saturated - the perfect amount of kool aid in water (not too much, not too little) 2. Unsaturated - 1/2 the kool aid in water - could add more 3. Supersaturated - changing the solvent state to add more solute in it (e.g. heating up H2O to add more)
Suspension Heterogenous mixture. Large particles that float in a liquid; particles will settle when allowed to stand (e.g. sand in water)
Colloid Mixtures w/ large particles but small enough to remain suspended. Neither a solution or a suspension. Tend to not settle
Isotonic Has same solute concentration as another solution (same osmolarity). Fluid at an equal rate (e.g. 0.9% saline solution - NaCl)
Hypotonic Lower solute concentration than another solution (lower osmolarity). Solute concentration is greater inside the cell, free water concentration is greater outside. Free water flows into cell.
Hypertonic Higher solute concentration than another solution (higher osmolarity). Solute concentration is greater outside the cell, the free water concentration is greater inside. Free water flows out of cell
Diffusion Particles move from high concentration to low concentration (e.g. like going down the river, with the current). Simple & Facilitated
Simple Diffusion Cell walls composed of sheets of lipids with many minute protein pores. Substances must be small enough, lipid soluble, and have a concentration gradiant
Facilitated Diffusion Large lipid insoluble substances must diffuse into the cell with a carrier substance. Always require a carrier substance and a concentration gradient (e.g. glucose binds with carrier to become a lipid soluble
5 Factors that Increase Diffusion 1. Increased Temperature 2. Increased concentration of particle 3. Decreased size or molecular weight of the particle 4. Increased SA available 5. Decreased distance medium
Active Transport - Movement if substance by the use of energy (ATP), and/or a carrier molecule - Works against a concentration gradient - Low to high concentration gradient
Sodium-Potassium Pump - Actively transports sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cell - Uses ATP as energy to all them to go across (basically opens up a gate thingy)
Filtration Movement of water and solutes from high fluid hydraulic pressure to low fluid hydraulic pressure
Hydraulic Pressure Pressure from force of gravity acting on the fluid (hydrostatic pressure) + pressure created by the pump action of the heart
Osmosis Water across a semi-permeable from low to high solute concentration. Against concentration gradient
Osmotic Pressure Amount of hydrostatic pressure required to stop the osmotic flow of water
Oncotic Pressure Osmotic pressure exerted by colloids
5 Uses for Fluid Therapy 1. Restore fluid balances (ie. dehydrated, low blood) 2. Restore electrolytes balance (if they cannot eat) 3. Restore acid-base balance 4. Administer meds quickly (ie. heart attack/stroke) 5. Nutritional maintenance (TPN)
5 Ways that Fluid moves 1. Selectively Permeable 2. Diffusion 3. Active Transport 4. Filtration 5. Osmosis
4 (first 2) Normal Conditions with Fluid Balance 1. Fluid balances are maintained via hydrostatic and colloid oncotic pressures 2. In the arteriole, hydrostatic pressure is greater then colloid oncotic pressure resulting in a net outflow of fluid
4 (last 2) Normal Conditions with Fluid Balance 3. Venules = smaller hydrostatic pressure, therefore the colloid oncotic pressures draws fluid back into the venules 4. Any buildup of fluid in the interstitial space should be absorbed by the lymphatic system
1 Abnormality with Fluid Balance - Edema - buildup of fluid in the Interstitial Fluid (EFC)
4 Reasons why Edema occurs 1. Increased Hydrostatic Pressure - or heart pumping harder 2. Increased Vascular Permeability - burns, infections, more fluid leaking out 3. Decreased Oncotic Pressure - not enough colloid/fluid 4. Decreased Lymph drainage - blocked/diseased
Crystalliods - what they are - Treats fluid volume deficit - Electrolytes or glucose - No colloids - Small enough to cross the capillary membranes
Colloids - what they are - Protein - Macromolecules - then creates fluid shifts; doesn't move out - Too big to cross the capillary membrane (stays in IVF)
Colloids - what they do - Increase the osmotic/oncotic pressure & volume in the vascular system by drawing/attracting fluid from interstitial & intercellular spaces (good for if you need to decrease fluid in certain spaces - Edema) - Corrects hypotension - Replenishes protein
Problems with Colloids - Causes fluid shifts from Intracellular and Interstitial spaces into the Intravascular space and can lead to problems
3 types of Crystaloids 1. Isotonic - fluid has same osmolarity as plasma 2. Hypotonic - fluid has fewer solutes than plasma 3. Hypertonic - fluid has more solutes than plasma
Isotonic - Crystalloid - Same osmolality as body fluids - Fluids will not shift across compartments but the volume that's infused will be distributed equally to wherever it's needed
Isotonic Dehydration - Crystalloid - When fluids and electrolytes are lost in even amounts - No ICF fluid shifts in isotonic
5 causes of Isotonic Dehydration 1. Diuretic Therapy - fluid abnormalities 2. Excessive vomiting 3. Excessive urine loss 4. Hemorrhage - bleeding out & losing solutes/solvents 5. Decreased fluid intake
Isotonic Overhydration - Crystalloid - Excessive fluids in the EFC - EFC expands; fluids do not shift between spaces - e.g. if we give too much and the body isn't able to get rid of it fast enough
Hypertonic - Crystalloid - Osmolarity greater than body fluids - Cause fluid shift out of ICF and into EFC (can cause cells to dehydrate) - Lots of Solutes - attracts fluid - Good for when we need fluid; not H2O
Hypertonic Dehydration - Crystalloid - Water loss in EFC is greater than solute loss (too much solutes - b/c of H2O loss)
Hypertonic Overhydration - Crystalloid - Too much solute from excess sodium gain - Hyperosmolarity of the EFC, draws fluid from the ICF into the blood stream
Hypotonic - Crystalloid - Osmolarity less than body fluids - Fluids shift from EFC to ICF (can treat hypotonic dehydration) - Puts fluid into cells - can lead to swelling & rupture
Hypotonic Dehydration - Crystalloid - Loosing too much solute and no H2O - Fluid shifts from bloodstream into the cells = decreased vascular volume = SHOCK
Hypotonic Overhydration - Crystalloid - Having too much H2O and no food/electrolytes (just water diet) - Osmolarity of the ECF decreases - Fluid moves into the IFC, fluid spaces expand
What does D5W do? - Used to treat total body water deficits - dehydration - Expands ECF & ICF - Isotonic - Contains energy
Compound Pure substance that can be broken down into 1 or more simpler pure substances using chemical means
Element Pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler pure substances using ordinary means
Atom Smallest particle of an element that can exist and still have the properties of an element
Molecule Group of two or more atoms that functions as a unit because the atoms are tightly bound together
Atomic Weight Average mass of the atoms of an element in atomic mass units
Atomic Number Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of that element
Molecular Weight Sum of the atomic weights of all the atoms in a molecule
Proton A positively charged subatomic particle, found in the nucleus of an atom
Neutron An electrically neutral particle found in the nucleus of an atom
Electron A negatively charged subatomic particle found outside the atomic nucleus
Isotope Atoms of the same element containing different numbers of neutrons, and therefore have different masses
Ion An electrically charged atom or group of atoms
Cation (+) charged ion
Anion (-) charged ion
Ionic Bonding A bond formed on the basis of electrostatic forces that exist between oppositely charged ions
Covalent Bonding A bond formed between 2 or more atoms by sharing of electrons
Valence The capacity of an atom for entering into combination with other atoms
Ionic Valence Equal to the number of electrons gained or lost in forming the ionic species
Covalence Equal to the number of electrons from an atom that are involved in shared electron pari bonds with other atoms
Equilibrium Chemical equilibrium is a condition in which 2 opposing chemical reactions occur simultaneously at the same rate
Law of Mass Action @ a constant temp the product of the active masses on one side of a chemical equation when divided by the product of the active masses on other side of the chemical equation is a constant regardless of the amounts of each substance present at the begi
Avogadro's Law Equal volumes of all gases @ the same temp & pressure contain the same number of molecules. 6.02 x 10 ^23
pH The pH of a solution is the (-) logarithm of the solution's molar hydronium ion concentration
Acid Substance that's able to donate a hydrogen ion (H+ proton) and therefore increase the concentration of H+ when it dissolves in water
Salts Ionic compounds that can be formed by replacing one or more of the H ions of an acid by a different (+) ion. Contains a metal ion as the (+) ion and a nonmetal ion as the (-) ion
Base A substance that is an H+ acceptor; produces an excess of OH- ions when it dissolves in water
Electrolyte A solute that produces ions in solution. An electrolyte solution conducts an electric current
Dissociation Ionization of electrolytes in aqueous solution to produce anions and cations
Anabolism The phase of metabolism in which simple substances are synthesized into the complex materials of living tissue
Catabolism The metabolic breakdown of complex molecules into simpler ones, often resulting in a release of energy
Created by: alexmanikus



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