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Chem Exam I

Molecular Orbital Theory through Physical Properties of Solutions

Result from the interaction of the atomic orbitals of the bonding atoms and are associated with the entire molecule Molecular Orbitals
Lower energy and greater stability than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed Bonding Molecular Orbitals
Higher energy and lower stablility than the atomic orbitals from which it was formed Antibonding Molecular Orbitals
Electron density is concentrated symmetrically around a line between the 2 nuclei of the bonding atoms Sigma Molecular Orbital
Electron density is conentrated above and below a line joining the 2 nuclei of the bonding atoms Pi Molecular Orbital
Method of evaluating stablility-indicates the strength of a bond Bond Order
Diatomic molecules containing atoms of the same elements Homonuclear Diatomic Molecules
Hold atoms together in a molecule Intramolecular forces
Dipole-Dipole, Dipole-induced dipole, and dispersion forces Van der Waals forces
Attractive forces that pass between polar molecules, that is, between molecules that possess dipole moments Dipole-Dipole Forces
Attract an ion (either a cation or anion and a polar molecule to each other Ion-dipole forces
Separation of positive and negative charges in the atom or nonpolar molecule is due to the poximity of of an ion or a polar molecule induced dipole
Ease with which the elecron distribution in the atom or molecule can be distorted polarizability
Attractive forces that arise as a result of temporary dipoles induced in atoms or molecules Dispersion Forces
Special type of dipole-dipole interaction between the hydrogen atom in a polar bond such as N-H, O-H, or F-H and an electronegative O, N, or F atom hydrogen bond
amount of energy required to stretch or increase the surface of a liquid by a unit area surface tension
intermolecular attraction between like molecules cohesion
an attraction between unlike molecules adhesion
A measure of a fluid's resistance to flowgreater viscosity slower the liquid flows Viscosity
Possesses rigid and long-range order; its atoms, molecules, or ions occupy specific positions Crystalline solid
basic repeating structural unit of a crystalline solid unit cell
Each sphere represents an atom, ion, or a molecule lattice point
the number of atoms or ions surrounding an atom or ion in a crystal lattice coordination number
Ex. glass-lack a regular 3-dimensional arrangement of atoms Amorphous solids
Homogeneous part of the system in contact with other parts of the system but separated from them by a well-defined boundary Phase
transformations from one phase to another Phase Changes
At any given temperature, a certain number of the molecules in a liquid possess sufficient Kinetic Energy to escape from the surface Evaporation
As the concentration of molecules in the vapor phase increases, some molecules return to the liquid phase Condensation
Rate of a forward process is exactly balanced by the rate of the reverse process is reached when the rates of condenstation and evaporation are equal Dynamic Equilibrium
Vapor pressure measured under dynamic equilibrium of condensation and evaporation Equilibrium vapor pressure
Energy required to vaporize one mole of a liquid Molar Heat of Vaporization
Temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure Boiling Point
Every substance has this above which its gas form cannot be made to liquefy, no matter how great the applied pressure --highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid Critical Temperature
Minimum pressure that must be applied to bring about liquefaction at the critical temperature Critical Pressure
Temperature at which solid and liquid phases coexist in equilibrium Melting Point
Energy required to melt 1 mole of a solid Molar Heat of Fusion
Process in which molecules go directly fromm the solid into the vapor phase Sublimation
Reverse Process that is vapor directly to solid Deposition
Energy required to sublime one mole of a solid Molar Heat of Sublimation
Conditions under which a substance exists as a solid, liquid, or gas Phase Diagram
Only temperature and pressure at which all three phases can be in equilibrium with one another Triple Point
Attractive forces between molecules Intermolecular Forces
a solution that contains the maximum amount of a solute in a given solvent at a specific temperature Saturated Solution
Contains less solute than it has the ability to dissolve Unsaturated Solution
Contains more solute than is present in a saturated solution Supersaturated Solution
Process in which dissolved solute comes out of solution and forms crystals Crystallization
When two liquids are completely soluble in each other in all proportions Miscible
the process in which an ion or a molecule is surrounded by solvent molecules arranged in a specific manner Solvation
Percent by weight or the weight percent Percent by mass
Number of moles of solute in one liter of solution Molarity
Number of moles of solute in one kilogram Molality
Continue with Section 13.4
Created by: larryc166