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BJ Chem Ch 11 Sol&Li

BJ Chem Ch 11 Solids and Liquids

electrostatic attractions between molecules van der Waals forces
polar bond due to attraction between negative-to-positive aligned molecules dipole-dipole interaction
polar bond between hydrogen and a highly electronegative element such as N, O, F hydrogen bond
a.k.a. London forces, attractions between all kinds of molecules including polar and nonpolar dispersion forces
Solids which form regular 3-D patterns with distinct edges and sharp angles crystalline solid
solids without a preferred shape or pattern (rubber, asphalt, paraffin) amorphous solid
heat applied to a substance that shows a temperature change sensible heat
heat applied to a substance which results in a phase change and no temperature change latent heat
quantity of heat required to change 1 gram of solid to a liquid with no temperature change (cal/gram or joules/gram) heat of fusion
direct phase change from solid to gas sublimation
a crystal's 3-D pattern which depends on the number and kinds of particles, their relative sizes, and their electrical natures. crystal lattice
smallest unit of a crystal that can be used as a building block unit cell
substances which can form more than one type of crystal lattice. polymorphous
polymorphous elements allotropic
each form of allotropic element allotrope
energy that is released when gaseous particles form crystals. lattice energy
the result of molecules forming an elastic 'skin' over the surface of liquids surface tension
compounds which will reduce surface tension such as detergents surfactant
the curved surface of some liquid in a test tube or graduated cylinder meniscus
rises of liquid up a narrow capillary tube capillary rise
ability to resist flowing, a.k.a. thickness and gumminess viscosity
molecuses with above-average speeds which break away from liquids if they are neaar the surface evaporation
amount of heat required to convert a gram of a liquid at its boiling point to its vapor at the same temperature heat of vaporization
formation of a liquid from a gaseous state condensation
when two processof condensation and evaporation oppose each other so that no net effect can be seen dynamic equilibrium
pressure exerted by the evaporated molecules vapor pressure
a physical change from the liquid state to the gaseous state that occurs when he vapor pressure of a liquid equals the prevailing atmospheric pressure boiling
the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the applied pressure boiling point
the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals 760 torr normal boiling point
the process which seperates mixtures uses vaporization and condensation distillation
Combining a series of distillation steps in a fractional distillation column is called ___ refining
the highest temperature at which a gas can be liquefied critical temperature
the pressure that is required to liquefy a gas at its critical pressure critical pressure
the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of the substance 1 degree C specific heat
the point of temperature and pressure where all three states: solid, liquid, and gas can coexist critical point
List type(s) of intermolecular forces that act between the molecules of: CO2 dispersion forces (nonpolar)
List type(s) of intermolecular forces that act between the molecules of: HF hydrogen, dipole-dipole, and dispersion
List type(s) of intermolecular forces that act between the molecules of: BrCl dipole-dipole, dispersion
Glass is: a) amorphous b) crystalline amorphous
Same? melting point/freezing point yes
Same? vaporization point/boiling point yes
Same? condensation point/freezing point no
What type of unit crystal shape does NaCl have? cubic
CaCO3 crystallized at low temperature form calcite which has a rhombohedral lattice. At high temperature they form aragonite which has an _______________ lattice. Orthorhomic
Created by: MArCHChemBJ