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Triplett Ch1Larson

Data consist of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.
Statistics the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions.
Population the set of all people or items that are of interest.
Sample a subset of a population
Parameter a numerical description of a population characteristic.
Statistic a numerical description of a sample characteristic.
Descriptive statistics the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data.
Inferential statistics the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population. A basic tool in the study of inferential statistics is probability.
Qualitative data consist of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries.
Quantitative data consist of numerical measurements or counts.
Nominal level of measurement qualitative only. Data at this level are categorized using names, labels, or qualities. No mathematical computations can be made at this level and there is no order.
Ordinal level of measurement qualitative or quantitative data. Data at this level can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful.
Interval level of measurement data that can be ordered, and you can calculate meaningful differences between data entries. At this level, a zero entry simply represents a position on a scale; the entry is not an inherent zero.
Ratio level of measurement data that are similar to data at the interval level, with the added property that a zero entry is an inherent zero. A ratio of two data values can be formed so that one data value can be meaningfully expressed as a multiple of another.
Observational study a method of gathering data in which a researcher observes and measures the characteristics of interest of part of a population but does not change existing conditions.
Experiment a method of gathering data in which a researcher applies a treatment to part of the population and then observes and measures the responses of interest of part of a population.
Simulation a method of gathering data that uses a mathematical or physical model to reproduce the conditions of an impractical, expensive, or dangerous situation or process.
Survey a method of gathering data which is an investigation carried out by asking people questions by interview, mail, or telephone.
Confounding variable occurs when an experimenter cannot tell the difference between the effects of different factors on a variable.
Simple random sample every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being selected. Individuals/items are randomly chosen from the entire population
Stratified sample a sampling technique used when it is important to have members/items from each segment of the population; the population is divided into subsets that share a similar characteristic and some members/items of each group are randomly selected for the study.
Cluster sample a sampling technique used when the population falls into naturally occurring subgroups, each sharing similar characteristics; the subgroups are randomly selected and then all members/items of the selected subgroups are included in the study
Systematic sample a sampling technique in which each member/item of the population is assigned a number, a starting point is randomly selected, and sample members/items are chosen at regular intervals from the starting number.
Convenience sample a sampling technique that often leads to biased studies because it consists of only readily available members/items of the population. This method is not recommended.
Created by: 100002355557447