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Math Vocab Ch.1

quantity anything that can be measured of counted
variable a symbol, usually a letter, that represents the value(s) of a variable quantity
algebraic expression a mathematical phrase that includes one or more variables
numerical expression mathematical phrase with numbers and operation symbols, but no variables
power has two parts.... the base and exponent
exponent tells you how many times to use the base as a factor
base the part of the power that is being multiplied
simplify to replace an expression with its simplest number or form
evaluate to replace each variable with a given number and simplify using order of operations
square root a number A is a square root of a number B if AxA = B
raicand the expression under the radical symbol
radical the radical symbol and radicand together
perfect square the square of an integer
set a well-defined collection of objects; elements listed within braces { }
elemental of a set each object in a set
subset consists of elements from the given set
rational numbers any number you can write in the form a/b where a and b are integers and b does not equal 0
natural numbers 1,2,3,4,5...
whole nubers 0,1,2,3,4,5...
integers ...,-5,-4,-3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3,4,5...
irrational numbers cannot be represented as the quotient of two integers
real numbers rational numbers and irrational numbers
inequality mathematical sentence that compares the values of two expressions using the inequality symbols such as < > ≤ ≥
equivalent espressions algebraic expressions that have the same value for all values of variables
deductive reasoning the process of reasoning logically from the given facts to a conclusion
counter example an example showing that a statement is false
absolute value a number's distance from 0 on a number line (always nonnegative)
opposites two numbers that are the same distance from 0 but in opposite directions on a # line
additive inverses a number and its opposite
inverse Property of Addition the sum of a number and its opposite -> ALWAYS 0 (a+-a=0)
multiplicative inverse a number that when multiplied will result in a product of 1 (ax1/a=1)
reciprocal if a/b then b/a
distributive property used to simplify the product of a number and one or more variables
term a number, variable, or the product of a number and one or more variables
constant a term that has no variable
coefficient a numerical factor of a term
like terms have the SAME variable factors
equation a mathematical sentence that uses an equal sign
open sentence equation containing one or more variables and may be true or false depending on the values of its variables
solution of an equation (1) a value of the variable that makes the equation true
solution of an equation (2) an ordered pair (x,y) that makes the equation true
inductive reasoning process of reaching a conclusion based on an observed pattern
Created by: LBurnham