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C4 Glossary AW

Glossary of Key Words for C4- The Periodic Table

Alkali metals Very reactive metals in group 1 of the periodic table, e.g. sodium.
Alkalis Substances which produce OH- ions in water.
Aquifer Underground layer of permeable rock or loose materials (gravel or silt) where groundwater is stored.
Atom The basic “building block” of an element which cannot be chemically broken down.
Atomic number The number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Attact Move towards, for example, unlike charges attract.
Balanced equation Chemical equation where the number of atoms on each side of the equation balance each other.
Barium chloride Testing chemical for sulfates in water.
Boiling point Temperature at which the bulk of a liquid turns to vapour.
Catalyst A chemical that speeds up a reaction but is not changed or used up by the reaction.
Charge(s) A property of matter- charge exists in two forms, positive and negative, which attract each other.
Chemical properties The characteristic reactions of substances.
Chlorination Addition of chlorine to water supplies to kill micro-organisms.
Close packed metal ions Structure of a metal.
Compound Two or more elements which are chemically joined together, e.g. H2O.
Covalent bonds Bonds between atoms where some of the electrons are shared.
Delocalised electrons Electrons which are free to move away through a collection of ions- as in a metal.
Dot and cross model A drawn model representing the number of electrons in the outside shell of bonding atoms or ions.
Double covalent bond Covalent bond where each atom shares two electrons with the other atom.
Electron gain Gaining of electrons to form negative ions.
Electron loss Losing of electrons to form positive ions.
Electron shells The orbit around the nucleus likely to contain the electron.
Electronic structure The number of electrons in sequence that occupy electron shells, e.g. the 11 electrons of sodium are in sequence 2,8,1.
Electrons Small particles within an atom that orbit the nucleus (they have a negative charge).
Electrostatic attraction Attrraction between opposite charges, e.g. between Na+ and Cl-.
Elements Substances made out of only one type of atom.
Filtration The process of filtering river or ground water to purify it for drinking water.
Flame test Test where a chemical burns in a Bunsen flame with a characteristic colour- tests for metal ions.
Giant ionic lattice Sodium chloride forms a lattice, also called a giant ionc structure.
Giant molecular structures A large regular three-dimensional covalently bonded structure containing more than one non-metal element.
Group Within the periodic table the vertical columns are called groups.
Group 1 metals Metals in group 1 of the periodic table, e.g. lithium, sodium and potassium.
Group 7 elements Non-metals in group 7 of the periodic table, e.g. fluorine, bromine and iodine.
Halogens Reactive non-metals in group 7 of the periodic table, e.g. chlorine.
Hardness Hardness of solid material as tested by the scratch test.
Helium Second element in the periodic table; an alpha particle is a helium nucleus.
Intermolecular force Force between molecules.
Ionic bond A chemical bond between two ions of opposite charge.
Ionic equation An equation representing the formation of ions by the transfer of electrons.
Ionises Adds or removes electrons from an atom leaving it charged.
Ions Charged particles (can be positive or negative)
Isotopes Atoms with the same number of protons but different number of neutrons.
Lustrous Shiny
Mass number Number of protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
Melting point The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid.
Metal halide A compound of a metal and a halogen, e.g. potassium bromide.
Metallic bonding The bonding between close-packed metal ions due to delocalised electrons.
Metallic properties The physical properties specific to a metal, such as lustre and electrical conductivity.
Metals Solid substances that are usually lustrous, conduct electricity an form ions by losing electrons.
Minerals Natural solid materials with a fixed chemical composition and structure, rocks are made of collections of minerals; mineral nutrients in our diet are things like calcium and iron, they are simple chemicals needed for health.
Molecular formula The formula of a chemical using chemical symbols in the periodic table, e.g. methane has a molecular formula of CH4.
Molecule Two or more atoms which have been chemically combined.
Molten liquid A liquid that has just melted, usually referring to rock, ores, metals or salts with very high melting points.
Negative ion An ion made by an atom gaining electrons.
Neutrons Small particle which does not have a charge found in the nucleus of an atom.
Nickel catalyst A catalyst used in the hardening of margarine.
Nitrate residue Unwanted residues sometimes found in water contaminated by farm run-off.
Non-metals Substances that are dull solids, liquids or gases that do not conduct electricity and form ions by gaining electrons.
Nucleons Protons and neutrons (both found in the nucleus).
Nucleus Central part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.
Oxidation The process of electron loss.
Period A row in the periodic table.
Periodic table A table of all the chemical elements based on their atomic number.
Pesticide residue Unwanted residues sometimes found in water contaminated by local pesticide use.
Physical property Property that can be measured without changing the chemical composition of a substance, e.g. hardness.
Positive ion An ion made by an atom losing electrons.
Precipitate Solid formed in a solution during a chemical reaction.
Precipitation reaction Chemical test in which a solid precipitate is formed- tests for metal ions.
Product Molecules produced at the end of a chemical reaction.
Protons Small positive particles found in the nucleus of an atom.
Reactants Chemicals which are reacting together in a chemical reaction.
Reduction The process of electron gain.
Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom compared to 1/12th of a carbon atom.
Relative formula mass The sum of the relative atomic masses in a compound.
Reservoir A water resource where large volumes of water are held.
Sea water Water containing high levels of dissolved solids making it undrinkable.
Sedimentation A process during water purification where small solid particles are allowed to settle.
Silver nitrate A chemical used for testing for halide ions in water.
Single covalent bond Bond between to two atoms in which each atom shares one electron.
Stable electronic structure An achieved structure where the outer electron shell of an atom is full.
Sub-atomic particles Particles that make up an atom, e.g. protons, neutrons and electrons.
Substrate Molecules at the start of a chemical reaction.
Thermal decomposition The breaking down of a compound into two or more products on heating.
Transition element An element in the middle section of the periodic table, between the group 1 and block and the group 3 to 0 (zero) block.
Water conservation The act of reducing water consumption through planned choice, e.g. hosepipe bans and water metering.
Water resources Places from where water is extracted or where it is stored, e.g. aquifers, reservoirs or lakes.
Created by: Brimsham