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P3 Glossary AW

Glossary of Key Words for P3- Forces for Transport

TermDefinition
Accelerate An object accelerates if it speeds up.
Acceleration A measurement of how quickly the speed of a moving object changes (if speed is in m/s the acceleration is in m/s2 (metres per second squared)).
Acid rain Rain water that is made more acidic by pollutant gases.
Air bags Cushions which inflate with gas to protect people in a vehicle accident.
Air resistance The force exerted by air to any object passing through it.
Average speed Total distance travelled divided by the total time taken for a journey.
Balanced forces Forces acting in equal directions that are equal in size.
Biofuels Fuels made from plants- these can be burned in power stations.
Braking distance Distance travelled while a car is braking.
Carbon dioxide (CO2) A greenhouse gas which is emitted into the atmosphere as a by-product of combustion.
Catalyst A chemical that speeds up a reaction but is not changed or used up by the reaction.
Conservation of energy Principle stating that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be altered from one form to another.
Crash barrier Barrier used to prevent vehicles crossing from one carriageway to the other, causing a head-on collision.
Crash testing Deliberately crashing vehicles and analysing results to improve car safety.
Cross-sectional area The area displaced by a moving object.
Cruise control System that automatically controls the speed of a vehicle.
Crumple zones Areas of a car that absorb the energy of a crash to protect the centre part of the vehicle.
Declerates An object decelerates if it slows down.
Deceleration A measurement of how quickly the speed of a moving object decreases.
Diesel oil Fuel for diesel engines, traditionally obtained from oil but other forms such as biodiesel are being developed.
Distance-time graph A plot of the distance moved against the time taken for a journey.
Drag Energy losses caused by the continual pushing of an object against the air or a liquid.
Dummies Used in crash testing to learn what would happen to the occupants of a car in a crash.
Electric cars Cars running on solar power or batteries.
Electric windows Windows that can be opened or closed at the push of a button.
Escape lane Rough-surfaced uphill path adjacent to a steep downhill road enabling vehicles with braking problems to stop safely.
Exhaust gas Gases discharged into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion of fuels.
Force A push or pull which is able to change the velocity or shape of a body.
Fossil fuels Fuels such as coal, oil and gas.
Free-fall A body falling through the atmosphere without an open parachute.
Friction Energy losses caused by two or more objects rubbing against each other.
Fuel consumption The distance travelled by a given amount of fuel, e.g. in km/100litres.
Funicular railway Inclined plane or cliff railway.
Gravitational field strength The force of attraction between two masses.
Gravitational potential energy The energy a body has because of its position in a gravitational field, e.g. an object.
Gravity An attractive force between objects (dependent on their mass).
Greenhouse gas Any of the gases whose absorption of solar radiation is responsible for the greenhouse effect, e.g. carbon dioxide, methane.
Heat conductor A material that conducts heat.
Hybrid cars Cars powered by electric batteries which also have fuel engines.
Impact Collision between two moving objects or a moving object and a stationary object.
Instantaneous speed The speed of a moving object at one particular moment.
Joule Unit of work done and energy.
Joule meter Meter used to measure electrical energy.
Kilogram (kg) Unit of mass.
Kinetic energy The energy that moving objects have.
Lubricating Oiling.
Mass Describes the amount of something; it is measured in kilograms (kg).
Momentum The product of mass and velocity.
Net force Same as resultant force.
Newtons Unit of force (abbreviated to N).
Non-renewable Something which is used up at a faster rate than it can be replaced, e.g. fossil fuels.
Paddle shift controls Controls attached to the steering wheel of a car so that the driver can use them without taking their eyes off the road.
Petrol Volatile mixture of hydrocarbons used as a fuel.
Pollutants Unwanted residues found that can sometime cause damage.
Pollute Contaminate or destroy the environment.
Pollution Contaminating or destroying the environment as a result of human activities.
Power Rate of transfer of energy; electric power = voltage x current.
Primary safety features Help to prevent a crash, e.g. ABS brakes, traction control.
Reaction time The time it takes for a driver to step on the brakes after seeing an obstacle.
Relative velocity Vector difference between the velocities of two objects.
Renewable Energy that can be replenished at the same rate as it is used up, e.g. biofuels.
Resultant force Teh combined effect of forces acting on an object.
Safety cage A car’s rigid frame that protects occupants in a roll-over accident.
Seatbelts Harness worn by occupants of motor vehicles to prevent them from being thrown about in a collision.
Secondary safety features Protect occupants in the event of a crash, e.g. crumple zones, air bags, seat belts.
Side impact beams Bars in the side of a car to lessen the amount of bodywork distortion inside the car.
Solar energy Energy from the Sun.
Solar-powered Energy provided by the Sun.
Speed How fast an object travels: Speed = distance/time.
Speed camera Device used to measure the speed of a moving vehicle.
Speed-time graph A plot of how the speed of an object varies with time.
Stopping distance Sum of thinking and braking distances.
Streamlining Shaping an object to reduce resistance to motion.
Tensile strength A force which stretches something.
Terminal speed or velocity The top speed reached when drag matches the driving force.
Thinking distance Distance travelled while the driver reacts before braking.
Thinking time Time for a driver to react before braking.
Traction control Helps limit tyre slip in acceleration on slippery surfaces.
Tread Pattern on part of tyre that comes in contact with road surface to provide traction.
Unbalanced (forces) Forces acting in opposite directions that are unequal in size.
Velocity How fast an object is travelling in a certain direction: velocity = distance/time.
Watt (W) A unit of power, 1 watt equals 1 joule of energy being transferred per second.
Weight The force of gravity acting on a body.
Work Work is done when a force moves.
Work done Work done is the product of the force and distance moved in the direction of the force.
Created by: Brimsham