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C3 Glossary AW

Glossary of Key Words for C3- Chemical Economics

TermDefinition
Activation energy The energy needed to start a chemical reaction.
Allotropes Different forms of the same element.
Atom The basic “building block” of an element which cannot be chemically broken down.
Atom economy A way of measuring the amount of atoms that are wasted or lost when a chemical is made.
Balanced equation Chemical equation where the number of atoms on each side of the equation balance each other.
Batch process A process used to make small fixed amounts of substances, like medicines, with a clear start and finish.
Boiling point Temperature at which the bulk of a liquid turns to vapour.
Buckminsterfullerene A very stable sphere of 60 carbon atoms joined by covalent bonds. An allotrope of carbon.
Carbon A very important element, carbon is present in all living things and forms a huge range of compounds with other elements.
Catalyst A chemical that speeds up a reaction but is not changed or used by the reaction.
Chemical properties The characteristic of substances.
Collision frequency The number of successful collisions between reacting particles that happen in one second.
Combustion Process where fuels react with oxygen to produce heat.
Compressions Particles pushed together, increasing pressure.
Concentration The amount of chemical dissolved in a certain volume of solution.
Conservation of mass The total mass of reactants equals the total mass of products formed.
Continuous process A process for making a large amount of chemicals which runs all the time if new materials are added and wastes removed.
Covalent bonds Bonds between atoms where some of the electrons are shared.
Diffuse When particles diffuse they spread out.
Distillation The process of evaporation followed by condensation.
Double covalent bond Covalent bond where each atom shares two electrons with the other atom.
Efficient A process in which losses are minimised.
Elements Substances made out of only one type of atom.
Endothermic reaction Chemical reaction which takes in heat.
Energy The ability to “do work”-the human body needs energy to function.
Evaporation When a liquid changes to a gas it evaporates.
Exothermic reaction Chemical reaction in which heat is given out.
Explosion A very fast reaction making large volumes of gas.
Fullerenes Cage-like carbon molecules containing many carbon atoms, e.g. buckyballs.
Hardness Hardness of a solid material as tested by the scratch test.
Limewater Calcium hydroxide particles in water- this clear liquid turns milky in the presence of carbon dioxide.
Limiting reactant Chemical used up in a chemical reaction that limits the amount of product formed.
Lubricating Oiling
Lustrous Shiny
Melting point The temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid.
Nanometre Units used to measure very small things (one billionth of a metre).
Nanoparticles Very small particles on the nanoscale.
Nanotube Carbon atoms formed into a very tiny tube.
Nickel catalyst A catalyst used in the hardening of margarine.
Optimum temperature The temperature range that produces the best reaction rate.
Percentage yield Comparing the amount of useful product made to the amount expected.
Petrol Volatile mixture of hydrocarbons used as a fuel.
Product Molecules produced at the end of a chemical reaction.
Rate of reaction The speed with which a chemical reaction takes place.
Reactants Chemicals which are reacting together in a chemical reaction.
Refined The refining process turns crude oil into usable forms such as petrol.
Single covalent bond Bond between to two atoms in which each atom shares one electron.
Soluble A soluble substance dissolves in a liquid, e.g. sugar is soluble in water.
Solute A substance which dissolves in a liquid.
Solution When a solute dissolves in a solvent, a solution forms.
Solvent A liquid which dissolves a substance.
Substrate Molecules at the start of a chemical reaction.
Chromatography A method for splitting up a substance to identify compounds and check for purity.
Created by: Brimsham