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Test 1

QuestionAnswer
exothermic reaction in which energy is released (explosions)
endothermic reaction in which energy is absorbed (cold pack)
chemical reaction process in which elements and/or compounds interact with one another to form more substances
product chemical(s) produced as a result of a chemical reaction
reactant starting material(s) in a reaction
density d=m/v
mass quantity of matter in an object
matter anything that has mass and volume
quantity something that has magnitude or size
volume space an object occupies
weight force of gravity acting on mass
allotrope one of the number of different molecular forms of an element
atom basic unit of matter
element one of 10 simplest substances from which more complex substances are made
molecule 2 or more atoms combined in a definite ratio, held together by covalent bonds, and is chemically neutral
acid class of compounds whose water solutions taste sour, turn blue litmus paper red, and react with bases to form salts
base class of compounds: taste bitter, feel slippery in water solution, turns red litmus paper blue, and react with acids to form salts
compound pure substances composed of atoms from 2 or more different elements, ionic bonds (ex: water)
mixture collection of 2 or more pure substances physically mixed together (ex: chicken soup, rocks in sand, iced tea, kool aid)
ion atom or group of atoms with electrical charge (ex: Na^+)
inorganic compound compounds that lack the element carbon
organic compound compounds that contains element carbon
pH numerical scale (0-14) used to express acidity or basicity; 0-7 is acid, 7 is neutral, 7-14 is base
chemical bond force of attraction between different atoms that binds atom together
energy capacity to do some type of work
heat sum total of kinetic energy of the particles in a sample of the matter
kinetic energy energy an object has because of its motion
potential energy energy an object has because of its postition
specific heat amount of heat energy requires to raise temperature of 1g of a substance by 1K
system a specific portion of matter in a given region of space that has been selected for study during an experiment or observation
temperature measure of average kinetic energy of particles in a sample of the matter
hypothesis reasonable and testable explanation of observations
theory well tested explanation of observation
scientific law description of natural world that has proven reliable over time
accuracy extent to which a measurement approaches true value of quantity
precision extent to which series of measurement of same quantity made in same way agree with one another
solid fixed volume, fixed shape, molecules vibrate slightly
liquid fixed volume, takes shape of container, particles can pass through each other
gas takes volume an shape of container, particles are rapid and random
difference between weight and mass weight is the force of gravity acting on mass, while mass is the quantity of matter in an object.
physical change change that affects only physical properties (ex: melting, boiling, freezing)
chemical change change that produces one or more new substances (ex: rusting, precipitation, released gas, emission of light, color change, glow stick)
physical property any property of matter that can be measured without changing its chemical nature (ex: mass, density, height, color, texture, boiling point)
chemical property property of matter that can be observed only when substances interact (ex: flammability, volatility, radioactivity)
how are temperature and heat related? heat is the sum of kinetic energy in a sample of the particles in the matter. temperature is the average kinetic energy in a sample of the particles in the matter.
Created by: kott2