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C2 Glossary AW

Glossary of key words for C2- Chemical Resources

TermDefinition
Acid Solution with a pH of less than 7.
Aggregate Gravel made of a range of particle sizes.
Alkali A soluble base. A substance which produces OH- ions in water.
Alloy A mixture of two or more metals- used to make coins.
Anion Ion with a negative charge; they move to the anode during electrolysis.
Anode Electrode with a positive charge.
Atmosphere Mixture of gases above the lithosphere, mainly nitrogen and oxygen.
Backward reaction The reaction which goes from right to left in a reversible reaction.
Balanced symbol equation A symbolic respresentation showing the kind and amount of the starting materials and products of a reaction.
Basalt A rock which forms when magma cools.
Base A substance that will react with acids.
Boiling point Temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas.
Brass An alloy which contains copper and zinc.
Catalyst Substance added to a chemical reaction to alter the speed of the reaction- it is not used up during the reaction.
Cathode Electrode with a negative charge.
Cation Ion with a positive charge; they move to the cathode during electrolysis.
Cement The substance made when limestone and clay are heated together.
Composite material A material which consists identifiably different substances.
Concrete A form of artificial stone.
Convection current When particles in a liquid or gas gain thermal energy from a warmer region and move into a cooler region, taking this energy with them.
Corrode To lose strength due to chemical attack.
Covalent bond Bond between two atoms where an electron pair is shared.
Crust Surface layer of the Earth made of tectonic plates.
Decomposes Chemically broken down.
Degassing Gases coming out of a volcano.
Double covalent bond Covalent bond where each atom shares two electrons with the other atom.
Electrolysis When an electric current is passed through a solution which conducts electricity.
Electrolyte The liquid in which electrolysis takes place.
Epicentre The point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Fault A crack in the Earth’s crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other.
Granite An igneous rock.
Forward reaction The reaction which goes from left to right in a reversible reaction.
Haber process Industrial process for making ammonia.
Hydrated iron (III) oxide The chemical name for rust.
Igneous rock Rock which has formed when liquid rock has solidified.
Ionisation The formation of ions (charged particles)
Ionosphere A reagion of the Earth’s atmosphere where ionisation caused by incoming solar radiation affects the transmission of radio waves; it extends from 70km (43 miles) to 400km (250 miles) above the surface.
Limestone A sedimentary rock, made of calcium carbonate.
Lithosphere The cold rigid outer part of the Earth which includes the crust and upper part of the mantle.
Longitudinal In longitudinal waves, the vibration is in the same direction in which the wave travels.
Magma Molten rock found below the Earth’s surface.
Mantle Semi-liquid layer of the Earth beneath the crust.
Marble A metamorphic rock, made of calcium carbonate.
Melting point The temperature at which a solid changes to a liquid.
Metamorphic rock Rock which has been changed after it has formed.
Nitrifying-bacteria Bacteria that converts ammonia into nitrates.
Nitrifying-fixing bacteria Bacteria that converts ammonia into nitrates.
Nitrogenous fertiliser A fertiliser which contains a nitrogen compound.
Nucleus Central part of an atom that contains protons and neutrons.
Oxidation A chemical reaction in which a substance gains oxygen and/or loses electrons.
Ozone layer Layer for the Earth’s atmosphere that protects us from ultraviolet rays.
p wave Longitudinal seismic wave capable of travelling through solid and liquid parts of the Earth.
pH meter A device which measures the pH of a substance accurately.
pH scale Scale in which acids have a pH of below 7, alkalis a pH of above 7 and a neutral substance a pH of 7.
Recycle To reuse materials.
Reduction A chemical reaction in which a substance loses oxygen and/or gains electrons.
Reinforced concrete Concrete with steel rods or mesh running through it.
Rhyolite A rock which forms when silica rich magma cools.
Rust The substance made when iron corrodes, hydrated iron (III) oxide.
s wave Transverse seismic wave capable of travelling through solid but not liquid parts of the Earth.
Salt A substance formed when any acid reacts with a base.
Sedimentary rock Rock which has formed when fragments of older rock or living things have stuck together or by precipitation.
Seismic wave Vibration transmitted through the Earth.
Seismometer A device used to detect movements in the Earth’s crust.
Sensor Device that detects changes in the environment.
Shock wave Seismic wave that travels out from the epicentre of an earthquake.
Smart alloy An alloy which will return to a previous shape.
Solder An alloy which contains lead and tin.
Steel An alloy which contains iron.
Stratosphere A layer in the atmosphere starting at 15km above sea level and extending to 50km above sea level; the ozone layer is found in the stratosphere.
Subduction Where one tectonic plate sinks below another.
Subsidence Settling of the ground caused by mining.
Tectonic plate A large section of the lithosphere which can move across the surface of the Earth.
Thermal decomposition A reaction in which, when heated, one substance is chemically changed into at least two new substances.
Transerve In transverse waves, the vibration is at right angles to the direction in which the wave travels.
Tsunami Huge waves caused by earthquakes-can be very destructive.
Created by: Brimsham