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C1 Glossary AW

Glossary of key words for C1- Carbon Chemistry

TermDefinition
Addition polymer A very long molecule resulting from polymerisation, e.g. polythene.
Alkanes A family of hydrocarbons found in crude oil with single covalent bonds, e.g. methane.
Alkenes A family of hydrocarbons with one double covalent bond between carbon atoms, e.g. ethene.
Balanced symbol equation A symbolic representation showing the kind and amount of the starting materials and products of a reaction.
Biodegradable A biodegradable material can be broken down by microorganisms.
Bitumen Thick tar-like substance that does not boil in a fractionating column.
Boiling point Temperature at which a liquid turns into a gas.
Breathable fabric Gore-tex like material that allows water vapour to escape.
Bromine Orange substance used to test for alkenes. A liquid corrosive halogen.
Butane An alkane of 4 carbon atoms, part of LPG.
Carbon cycle A natural cycle through which carbon moves by respiration, photosynthesis and combustion in the form of carbon dioxide.
Carbon dioxide Gas present in the atmosphere at a low percentage but important in respiration, photosynthesis and combustion.
Carbon footprint The total amount of greenhouse gases given off by a person in given time.
Carbon monoxide Poisonous gas made when fuels burn in a shortage of oxygen.
Catalyst Substance added to a chemical reaction to alter the speed of a reaction- it is not used up during the reaction.
Catalytic converters Boxes fitted to vehicle exhausts which reduce the level of nitrogen oxides and unburnt hydrocarbons in the exhaust fumes.
Colloid A liquid with small particles dispersed throughout it, forming neither solution nor sediment.
Combustion Process where fuels react with oxygen to produce heat.
Complete combustion When fuels burn in excess of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water only.
Covalent bond Bond between two atoms where and electron pair is shared.
Cracking The process of making small hydrocarbon molecules from larger hydrocarbon molecules using a catalyst.
Cross links Links between two adjacent polymer chains that stop the movement of the molecules, which makes the plastic more rigid.
Crude oil Black material mined from the Earth from which petrol and many other products are made.
Decolourise Turn from a coloured solution to a colourless solution.
Decomposes Chemically broken down.
Deforestation Removal of large areas of trees.
di-Bromo compound Colourless compound resulting from an alkene and bromine solution.
Dispersion Particles spreading out in a colloid.
Displayed formula When the formula of a chemical is written showing all the atoms and all the bonds.
Disposal Getting rid of unwanted substances such as plastics.
Double covalent bond Covalent bond where each atom shares two electrons with the other atom.
Ethene An alkene containing 2 carbon atoms, it is produced during the process of cracking.
Finite resource Resources, such as oil that will eventually run out.
Fossil fuels Fuels such as coal, oil and gas.
Global warming The increase in the Earth’s temperature due to increases in carbon dioxide levels.
Greenhouse gas Any of the gases whose absorption of infrared radiation from the Earth’s surface is responsible for the greenhouse effect, e.g. carbon dioxide, methane, water vapour.
Infrared waves Non-ionising waves that produce heat- used in toasters and electric fires and given off by the surface of the Earth to warm the atmosphere.
Melting point Temperature at which a solid turns into a liquid.
Non-renewable energy Energy which is used up at a faster rate than it can be replaced, e.g. fossil fuels.
Renewable energy Energy that can be replenished at eh same rate that it’s used up, e.g. biofuels.
Temperature A measure of the degree of hotness of a body on and arbitrary scale.
Created by: Brimsham