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|What is the average life expectancy of turtles, tortoises, and terrapins
|1. Turtles & Terrapins- ~40 yrs 2. Tortoises- up to 150 yrs
|Turtles and Terrapins can undergo a temporary hibernation when its cold outside: T or F
|Which type of chelonian prefers to be mainly in water, dry land or both: Terrapin, Tortoise, Turtle
|Turtle- water Tortoise- dry land Terrapin- Both
|What is the difference, if any, between the shells of sea turtles & fresh water turtles?
|1. Sea turtles have leathery shell that helps with swimming & deep waters, not so much for protection 2. Fresh water turtles have hard shells, good for protection
|Which type of chelonian(s) can feel pain and pressure on their shells: Terrapin, Tortoise, Turtle
|All the above
|What is the name of the numerous bones that make up the chelonian shell? Around how many are there?
|Scutes; around 60
|_______ is the name for the top of the chelonian cell & _______ is the name of the bottom & how can you remember these names
|Carapace; Plastron; The letter C is at the TOP of the alphabet and P is closer to the BOTTOM
|Scutes help indicate the age of chelonians: T or F
|Scutes help indicate the growth period of chelonians: T or F
|Chelonians completely lack ears, internal and external: T or F
|What do the keratin scales (spikes/spur) help desert tortoises do?
|If a chelonian egg develops at a warm temp vs a cooler temp, what can be indentified? Be specific
|Gender; Males= cooler, Females= warmer
|How do you remember which gender develops at which temp?
|Males think they are really COOL (when they usually aren't) while females are a lot WARMer and caring
|Chelonian hatchlings have a tooth that allows them to break out of their shells. Once they are out the mothers help them search for food for the first three weeks: T or F
|Once chelonian hatchlings are out of their shells, what is the mother's role?
|Nothing. They must find food on their own. They are no longer cared for after the eggs are laid/hatched
|Chelonian mothers do not care for the eggs after they are laid or hatched: T or F
|In some turtle species iris color can be used to differentiate genders, which iris color is usually seen which each gender?
|Yellow/brown- females Red- males
|When comparing males and females of turtles & tortoises, which gender is larger? How does tail length vary with gender?
|Males smaller with longer tail
|The upper shell of the tortoise is known as _______
|Lower shell of the tortoise is known as _____
|How many digits can be found on each limb of a chelonian?
|Which of the following feature(s) does a chelonian lack: diaphragm, glottis, larynx, oropharynx, sternum
|What is another name used to describe the keratinized beak of a chelonian?
|Which nerve innervates the mandibular muscles of chelonians?
|What is the name of the scutes found on the carapace, along the edge
|What is the name of the scutes found on the carapace down along the center/spine
|What is the name of the scute found on the carapace side, in the center, above the head
|What is the name of the scutes found below the head, on the plastral side
|Which triangular-shaped scute is near the hind leg?
|What is the name of the scute above the tail, located on the carapacial side
|Which of the following are NOT the names of scutes found on a chelonian shell: Anal, Abdominal, Femoral, Humeral, Pectoral, Subscapular, Supracaudal, Thoracic
|Subscapular & Thoracic
|On the plastral side of a chelonian cell, what is the name of the scutes found between the abdominal and anal scutes?
|What is the name for the line between the keratinized plates of the chelonian shell?
|Epidermal plates regularly shed through the life of aquatic as well as land chelonians: T or F
|Epidermal plates regularly DO NOT shed through the life of aquatic as well as land chelonians: T or F
|T (rarely sheds in land, shed sometimes in aquatics)
|What is the name given to a mobile suture found in the plastron or carapace of a chelonian shell?
|In chelonians, what occurs when they are "pyramiding"
|Abnormal growth during first few years of life
|Soft shells are never considered normal in turtles: T or F
|Soft shells are considered normal in some turtle species: T or F
|Which of the following feature(s) IS present in chelonians: bronchi, choana, glottis, hard palate, sinuses, soft palate, turbinates
|Hard palate, glottis, bronchi
|What kind of epithelium in chelonians lines the bronchi, lungs, trachea and what is noteworthy to mention about it?
|Ciliated glandular epithelim, bad at getting rid of foreign material
|Chelonians cannot cough & they lack a muscular diaphragm: T or F
|What kind of respiration are chelonians capable of doing?
|Anaerobic/glycolic and aerobic
|When a chelonian's carapace is fractured, one common clinical sign is respiration difficulty: T or F
|Since chelonians lack a muscular diaphragm what is needed to increase the lung space and allow for inspiration?
|The chelonian pseudodiaphragm does not play a role in ventilation: T or F
|What do turtles lack in the URT
|Turbinates, sinuses, soft palate
|Describe chelonian land inspiration & expiration
|Inspiration passive, expiration active (opposite in water)
|Diving reflex of Aquatic Chelonians
|Incr HR & blood velocity in pulmonary artery which maximizes turtle's ability to exchange blood gases
|Aids in olfaction, is water movement between choana, mouth, pharynx due to movements of upper digestive tract
|Describe the heart chambers of a turtle
|L & R atria, one ventricle with multiple muscle folds
|In turtles, blood enters right atrium from ______ & L atrium gets blood from _____
|sinus venosus; L & R pulm vein
|Which vessels provide afferent blood supply to small intestine?
|Cranial & caudal pancreoduodenal arteries
|Small intestine venous vasculature
|Venous blood joins portal vein through duodenal v.
|What is most of small intestine suspended in
|Duodenal blood supply
|Cranial mesenteric a.
|Ureters, oviducts, vas deferens, bladder
|Gets outflow of bladder, urodeum, coprodeum, genitals, ureters; opens outside to world at vent
|Where is gall bladder
|Caudal border of R liver lobe
|What connects duodenum to pancreas
|Pancreatic duct (it's short)
|Blood supply to pancreas
|Coeliac artery branches; drain into veins of hepatic portal system
|What controls exocrine pancreas
|Secretin (like in other species)
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme amylase
|Stomach, Pancreas, Intestine
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme pepsin
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme trypsin
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme chitinase
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme chitobiase
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme ribonuclease
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme chymotrypsin
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme carboxypeptidase A
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme maltase
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme trehalase
|Where can you find the digestive enzyme isomaltase & sucrase
|Which digestive enzyme can be found in the stomach, pancreas AND intestine?
|At high temps ______ prod decr but ____ constant
|Gastric hcl concentration; pepsinogen
|Who has the shortest passage time: carnivores, herbivores, omnivores?
|Who has the longest passage time: carnivores, herbivores, omnivores?
|Large intestine peristalsis
|1. 1st kind sarts at cecum & goes to coprodeum 2. 2nd kind is antiperistalsis starting to coprodeum, allows urine to be moved to caudal parts of colon where water & ions can be reabsorbed
|Summarize the vitamin D synthesis steps
|Provitamin D3 7-dihydrocholesterol -> Previtamin D3 -> Vitamin D3 cholecalciferol -> Calcediol -> Calcetriol/Active Vitamin D3
|Where is calcediol and calcetriol made
|Calcediol made first, in liver; Calcetriol made last, in kidneys
|The activated form of vitamin D3 is aka
|List the 3 major organs involved in Ca homeostasis
|Kidneys, GI, Bone
|What are the roles of PTH in Ca homeostasis
|1. Incr Ca & decr phosphate reabsorption in renal tubules 2. Incr bone resorption 3. Stimulates activation of Vitamin D thus incr Ca reabsorption in gut
|What stimulates & inhibits PTH
|Stimul: Low Ca2+ Inhibited: High Ca+ or Calcitonin
|To sum it up in one sentence, what is the overall goal of PTH in Calcium homeostasis?
|Incr amount of calcium in blood
|Where does PTH come from
|Chief cells of parathyroid gland
|Where does Calcitonin come from
|What does Calcitonin do in Ca homeostasis
|1. Stops PTH secretion 2. Decr bone resorption/Inhib osteoclast activity, stimul osteoblast axn 3. Incr renal excretion of Ca
|What is Calcitriol's net effect and its effect on GI, Bone, and Kidney in Ca homeostasis?
|Incr Ca; GI- incr Ca & Phosphate, incr bone resorption, kidney- incr Ca & phosphate reabsorption
|What is Calcitonin's net effect and its effect on GI, Bone, and Kidney in Ca homeostasis?
|Decr Ca; indirectly effects GI, decr bone resorption, decr Ca/Phosphate reabsorption & decr PTH in kidneys
|What is PTH's net effect and its effect on GI, Bone, and Kidney in Ca homeostasis?
|Incr Ca; indirectly effects GI, incr resorption in bone, in kidney it incr Ca reabsorption & calcitriol but decr phosphate reabsorption
|Out of the common metabolic bone diseases in mammals, which has NOT been reported in reptiles
|1. Hypertrophic osteodystrophy 2. Osteoporosis 3. Panosteitis 4. Rickets
|What are common signs seen with Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in reptiles
|1. Squishy shells 2. Malformed beaks/rubber jaw 3. Pathologic fractures 4. Cortical bone thinning 5. Caudal paresis
|Symptoms of Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in reptiles & who is most effective
|Older animals most effected Muscle tremors, seizures, not yet progressed to bone damage
|Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism
|1. Hyperphosphatemia is hallmark 2. Decr calcitriol, soft tissue calcific, renal osteodystrophy, hypocalcemia
|Early signs of Nutritional Metabolic Bone dz
|1. Tremors 2. Hyperflexiveness 3. Ataxia 4. Cloacal prolapses
|Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism differentials
|1. NSHP 2. hypertrophic osteopathy 3. Osteomyelitis
|1. Lameness, painful limbs, reluct to move 2. Pulmonary path commonly assoc
|Hypertrophic osteopathy differentials
|1. NSHP 2. RSHP 3. Gout 4. Tumoral calcinosis/Pseudogut 5. Osteomyelitis
|1. 2 forms (autosomal recessive & autosomal dominant) 2. Excessive bone thickening 3. Solid cortices & medullary cavities 4. Obliterates marrw cavity
|What is the ideal turtle Ca:P ratio
|Name the top 3 foods commonly eaten by captive desert tortoises that have the highest % protein
|Broccoli, Kale, Tunip greens
|Name the top 3 foods commonly eaten by captive desert tortoises that have the highest % fat
|Avocados, Cress, Parsley
|Name the top 3 foods commonly eaten by captive desert tortoises that have the highest % Ca
|Collards, Kale, Turnip greens
|Name the top 3 foods commonly eaten by captive desert tortoises that have the highest % P
|Cress, endive, turnip greens
|Term used to describe chelonians/reptiles than gain heat frm sun
|Where does the force to move air during inspiration & expiration come from for chelonians
|Intercostal, pectoral, and abdominal musculature
|Most commonly used injectable anesthetic in reptiles
|Ketamine (rarely used alone; can be paired with BZDs, opioids, a2-adrenergic agonists)
|What is induction agent of choice for reptiles & why
|Propofol; short acting & can be used in variety of reptiles
|If Medetomidine is used in reptiles, what is the name of the reversal
|Which immobilization/anesthetic agent has been known to cause prolonged recoveries in Chelonians
|What is inhalation agent of choice in reptiles & why
|Isoflurane; rapid induction & recovery times, minimal depression effects on cardiopulm fxn, limited hepatic & renal fox
|How do you assess anesthetic depth in turtles
|muscular tone and reflexes
|During a surgical plane of anesthesia, all reptiles exhibit ______
|Resp depression (bradycardia or apnea)