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What is the average life expectancy of turtles, tortoises, and terrapins 1. Turtles & Terrapins- ~40 yrs 2. Tortoises- up to 150 yrs
Turtles and Terrapins can undergo a temporary hibernation when its cold outside: T or F T
Which type of chelonian prefers to be mainly in water, dry land or both: Terrapin, Tortoise, Turtle Turtle- water Tortoise- dry land Terrapin- Both
What is the difference, if any, between the shells of sea turtles & fresh water turtles? 1. Sea turtles have leathery shell that helps with swimming & deep waters, not so much for protection 2. Fresh water turtles have hard shells, good for protection
Which type of chelonian(s) can feel pain and pressure on their shells: Terrapin, Tortoise, Turtle All the above
What is the name of the numerous bones that make up the chelonian shell? Around how many are there? Scutes; around 60
_______ is the name for the top of the chelonian cell & _______ is the name of the bottom & how can you remember these names Carapace; Plastron; The letter C is at the TOP of the alphabet and P is closer to the BOTTOM
Scutes help indicate the age of chelonians: T or F F
Scutes help indicate the growth period of chelonians: T or F T
Chelonians completely lack ears, internal and external: T or F F
What do the keratin scales (spikes/spur) help desert tortoises do? Retain water
If a chelonian egg develops at a warm temp vs a cooler temp, what can be indentified? Be specific Gender; Males= cooler, Females= warmer
How do you remember which gender develops at which temp? Males think they are really COOL (when they usually aren't) while females are a lot WARMer and caring
Chelonian hatchlings have a tooth that allows them to break out of their shells. Once they are out the mothers help them search for food for the first three weeks: T or F F
Once chelonian hatchlings are out of their shells, what is the mother's role? Nothing. They must find food on their own. They are no longer cared for after the eggs are laid/hatched
Chelonian mothers do not care for the eggs after they are laid or hatched: T or F T
In some turtle species iris color can be used to differentiate genders, which iris color is usually seen which each gender? Yellow/brown- females Red- males
When comparing males and females of turtles & tortoises, which gender is larger? How does tail length vary with gender? Males smaller with longer tail
The upper shell of the tortoise is known as _______ Carapace
Lower shell of the tortoise is known as _____ Plastron
How many digits can be found on each limb of a chelonian? 5
Which of the following feature(s) does a chelonian lack: diaphragm, glottis, larynx, oropharynx, sternum Diaphragm, Sternum
What is another name used to describe the keratinized beak of a chelonian? Rhamphotheca
Which nerve innervates the mandibular muscles of chelonians? Trigeminal
What is the name of the scutes found on the carapace, along the edge Marginal scutes
What is the name of the scutes found on the carapace down along the center/spine Vertebral scutes
What is the name of the scute found on the carapace side, in the center, above the head Nuchal scute
What is the name of the scutes found below the head, on the plastral side Gular
Which triangular-shaped scute is near the hind leg? Inguinal scute
What is the name of the scute above the tail, located on the carapacial side Supracaudal scute
Which of the following are NOT the names of scutes found on a chelonian shell: Anal, Abdominal, Femoral, Humeral, Pectoral, Subscapular, Supracaudal, Thoracic Subscapular & Thoracic
On the plastral side of a chelonian cell, what is the name of the scutes found between the abdominal and anal scutes? Femoral
What is the name for the line between the keratinized plates of the chelonian shell? Suture
Epidermal plates regularly shed through the life of aquatic as well as land chelonians: T or F F
Epidermal plates regularly DO NOT shed through the life of aquatic as well as land chelonians: T or F T (rarely sheds in land, shed sometimes in aquatics)
What is the name given to a mobile suture found in the plastron or carapace of a chelonian shell? Hinge
In chelonians, what occurs when they are "pyramiding" Abnormal growth during first few years of life
Soft shells are never considered normal in turtles: T or F F
Soft shells are considered normal in some turtle species: T or F T
Which of the following feature(s) IS present in chelonians: bronchi, choana, glottis, hard palate, sinuses, soft palate, turbinates Hard palate, glottis, bronchi
What kind of epithelium in chelonians lines the bronchi, lungs, trachea and what is noteworthy to mention about it? Ciliated glandular epithelim, bad at getting rid of foreign material
Chelonians cannot cough & they lack a muscular diaphragm: T or F T
What kind of respiration are chelonians capable of doing? Anaerobic/glycolic and aerobic
When a chelonian's carapace is fractured, one common clinical sign is respiration difficulty: T or F F
Since chelonians lack a muscular diaphragm what is needed to increase the lung space and allow for inspiration? Limb movements
The chelonian pseudodiaphragm does not play a role in ventilation: T or F T
What do turtles lack in the URT Turbinates, sinuses, soft palate
Describe chelonian land inspiration & expiration Inspiration passive, expiration active (opposite in water)
Diving reflex of Aquatic Chelonians Incr HR & blood velocity in pulmonary artery which maximizes turtle's ability to exchange blood gases
Gular pumping Aids in olfaction, is water movement between choana, mouth, pharynx due to movements of upper digestive tract
Describe the heart chambers of a turtle L & R atria, one ventricle with multiple muscle folds
In turtles, blood enters right atrium from ______ & L atrium gets blood from _____ sinus venosus; L & R pulm vein
Which vessels provide afferent blood supply to small intestine? Cranial & caudal pancreoduodenal arteries
Small intestine venous vasculature Venous blood joins portal vein through duodenal v.
What is most of small intestine suspended in Mesenterium proprium
Duodenal blood supply Cranial mesenteric a.
Urodeum contains Ureters, oviducts, vas deferens, bladder
Proctodeum Gets outflow of bladder, urodeum, coprodeum, genitals, ureters; opens outside to world at vent
Where is gall bladder Caudal border of R liver lobe
What connects duodenum to pancreas Pancreatic duct (it's short)
Blood supply to pancreas Coeliac artery branches; drain into veins of hepatic portal system
What controls exocrine pancreas Secretin (like in other species)
Where can you find the digestive enzyme amylase Stomach, Pancreas, Intestine
Where can you find the digestive enzyme pepsin Stomach
Where can you find the digestive enzyme trypsin Stomach, Pancreas
Where can you find the digestive enzyme chitinase Stomach, Pancreas
Where can you find the digestive enzyme chitobiase Stomach, Intestine
Where can you find the digestive enzyme ribonuclease Pancreas
Where can you find the digestive enzyme chymotrypsin Pancreas
Where can you find the digestive enzyme carboxypeptidase A Pancreas
Where can you find the digestive enzyme maltase Intestine
Where can you find the digestive enzyme trehalase Intestine
Where can you find the digestive enzyme isomaltase & sucrase Intestine
Which digestive enzyme can be found in the stomach, pancreas AND intestine? Amylase
At high temps ______ prod decr but ____ constant Gastric hcl concentration; pepsinogen
Who has the shortest passage time: carnivores, herbivores, omnivores? Omnivores
Who has the longest passage time: carnivores, herbivores, omnivores? Herbivores
Large intestine peristalsis 1. 1st kind sarts at cecum & goes to coprodeum 2. 2nd kind is antiperistalsis starting to coprodeum, allows urine to be moved to caudal parts of colon where water & ions can be reabsorbed
Summarize the vitamin D synthesis steps Provitamin D3 7-dihydrocholesterol -> Previtamin D3 -> Vitamin D3 cholecalciferol -> Calcediol -> Calcetriol/Active Vitamin D3
Where is calcediol and calcetriol made Calcediol made first, in liver; Calcetriol made last, in kidneys
The activated form of vitamin D3 is aka Calcitriol
List the 3 major organs involved in Ca homeostasis Kidneys, GI, Bone
What are the roles of PTH in Ca homeostasis 1. Incr Ca & decr phosphate reabsorption in renal tubules 2. Incr bone resorption 3. Stimulates activation of Vitamin D thus incr Ca reabsorption in gut
What stimulates & inhibits PTH Stimul: Low Ca2+ Inhibited: High Ca+ or Calcitonin
To sum it up in one sentence, what is the overall goal of PTH in Calcium homeostasis? Incr amount of calcium in blood
Where does PTH come from Chief cells of parathyroid gland
Where does Calcitonin come from Ultimobrachial gland
What does Calcitonin do in Ca homeostasis 1. Stops PTH secretion 2. Decr bone resorption/Inhib osteoclast activity, stimul osteoblast axn 3. Incr renal excretion of Ca
What is Calcitriol's net effect and its effect on GI, Bone, and Kidney in Ca homeostasis? Incr Ca; GI- incr Ca & Phosphate, incr bone resorption, kidney- incr Ca & phosphate reabsorption
What is Calcitonin's net effect and its effect on GI, Bone, and Kidney in Ca homeostasis? Decr Ca; indirectly effects GI, decr bone resorption, decr Ca/Phosphate reabsorption & decr PTH in kidneys
What is PTH's net effect and its effect on GI, Bone, and Kidney in Ca homeostasis? Incr Ca; indirectly effects GI, incr resorption in bone, in kidney it incr Ca reabsorption & calcitriol but decr phosphate reabsorption
Out of the common metabolic bone diseases in mammals, which has NOT been reported in reptiles 1. Hypertrophic osteodystrophy 2. Osteoporosis 3. Panosteitis 4. Rickets
What are common signs seen with Nutritional Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in reptiles 1. Squishy shells 2. Malformed beaks/rubber jaw 3. Pathologic fractures 4. Cortical bone thinning 5. Caudal paresis
Symptoms of Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism in reptiles & who is most effective Older animals most effected Muscle tremors, seizures, not yet progressed to bone damage
Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism 1. Hyperphosphatemia is hallmark 2. Decr calcitriol, soft tissue calcific, renal osteodystrophy, hypocalcemia
Early signs of Nutritional Metabolic Bone dz 1. Tremors 2. Hyperflexiveness 3. Ataxia 4. Cloacal prolapses
Renal Secondary Hyperparathyroidism differentials 1. NSHP 2. hypertrophic osteopathy 3. Osteomyelitis
HYPERTROPHIC OSTEOPATHY 1. Lameness, painful limbs, reluct to move 2. Pulmonary path commonly assoc
Hypertrophic osteopathy differentials 1. NSHP 2. RSHP 3. Gout 4. Tumoral calcinosis/Pseudogut 5. Osteomyelitis
Osteopetrosis 1. 2 forms (autosomal recessive & autosomal dominant) 2. Excessive bone thickening 3. Solid cortices & medullary cavities 4. Obliterates marrw cavity
What is the ideal turtle Ca:P ratio 1.5:2.1
Name the top 3 foods commonly eaten by captive desert tortoises that have the highest % protein Broccoli, Kale, Tunip greens
Name the top 3 foods commonly eaten by captive desert tortoises that have the highest % fat Avocados, Cress, Parsley
Name the top 3 foods commonly eaten by captive desert tortoises that have the highest % Ca Collards, Kale, Turnip greens
Name the top 3 foods commonly eaten by captive desert tortoises that have the highest % P Cress, endive, turnip greens
Term used to describe chelonians/reptiles than gain heat frm sun Heliothermic
Where does the force to move air during inspiration & expiration come from for chelonians Intercostal, pectoral, and abdominal musculature
Most commonly used injectable anesthetic in reptiles Ketamine (rarely used alone; can be paired with BZDs, opioids, a2-adrenergic agonists)
What is induction agent of choice for reptiles & why Propofol; short acting & can be used in variety of reptiles
If Medetomidine is used in reptiles, what is the name of the reversal Atipamezole
Which immobilization/anesthetic agent has been known to cause prolonged recoveries in Chelonians Tiletamine/zolazepam
What is inhalation agent of choice in reptiles & why Isoflurane; rapid induction & recovery times, minimal depression effects on cardiopulm fxn, limited hepatic & renal fox
How do you assess anesthetic depth in turtles muscular tone and reflexes
During a surgical plane of anesthesia, all reptiles exhibit ______ Resp depression (bradycardia or apnea)
Created by: NinaP183
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