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Chemistry Q4

QuestionAnswer
the process of chemically treating the dead human body to reduce the presence and growth of microorganisms, to slow decomposition, and to restore an acceptable physical appearance embalming
the primary purpose of embalming disinfection
the secondary purpose of embalming preservation
the tertiary purpose of embalming restoration
embalming chemicals cause a ______ change in the body's proteins chemical
the fundamental building blocks for cells and tissues proteins
what two organic compounds are found in amino acids? amines & organic acids
amino acids are held together by ______ bonds peptide
covalent bonds are formed when a ____ reacts with an ____, releasing a molecule of ______ carboxyl group; amino group; water
a substance breaking down in the presence of water hydrolysis
the purpose of embalming is to _____ enzymes neutralize
proteins are relatively ____ molecules large
proteins are polymers of ____ ____ amino acids
general formula for amines R-NH2
general formula for organic acids R-COOH
enzymes are biological catalysts, which means they ____ ____ chemical reactions speed up
the decomposition of proteins would take a very long time without _____ enzymes
enzymes ____ the rate of decomposition increase
after somatic death, enzymes ____ ____ ____ performing their functions in the body do not stop
the "self-digestion" in cells by enzymes in the cells themselves autolysis
disinfection before the embalming procedure begins primary disinfection
disinfection during the embalming operation concurrent disinfection
disinfection after the embalming procedure to protect the environment terminal disinfection
3 families of preservatives used in embalming fluids 1. aldehydes 2. alcohols 3. phenols
5 characteristics of preservatives 1. inactivate the chemical groups of proteins & amino acids 2. inhibit further decomp 3. inactivate enzymes (tissues & microorganisms) 4. kill microorganisms 5. destroy/mask odors
the location of ___ in proteins are potential sites of decomposition nitrogen
change of protein structure; decreases the likelihood that a protein will hydrolyze coagulation
enzymes are important catalysts of _____ hydrolysis
enzymes are very similar to ____, so preservatives will inactivate enzymes similarly proteins
the chemical change that occurs during embalming deprives bacteria of their ____ nutrition
preservative chemicals denature the structural proteins of ___ themselves bacteria
the same chemical actions that cause fixation of the tissues of the remains will produce fixation of ____ ____ bacterial invaders
the odors associated the decomposition are principally due to the formation of ____ amines
the decomposition of structural proteins produces amines such as ___, ___, ___, and ___ putrescine, cadaverine, indole, skatole
decomposition of ___-containing proteins also contributes to odors sulfur
preservative chemicals react with the ___ to effectively neutralize the odor nitrogen
HCHO and water produce _____ _____ methylene glycol
methyl/methylene bridge -CH2
methanol _____ the polymerization of formaldehyde prevents
the main chemical action of HCHO in embalming is the ____ of protein coagulation
coagulation is brought about by ____ ____ of the peptide bonds of adjacent proteins cross-linking
changes in proteins brought about by HCHO 1. increased viscosity 2. tissue firming 3. increased resistance to digestive enzymes 4. decreased water solubility & hydrolysis
an abundance of ___ can reverse the embalming process by hydrolyzing the cross-links water
formaldehyde is destroyed in strong ____ bases
amines and ammonia are strong ____ bases
formaldehyde and hemoglobin produces ____ methemoglobin
methemoglobin can change a body ____ black
in the embalming formula, preservative demand is represented by ___ C1
too ____ solutions or too ____ rate of flow can cause a walling off action concentrated, high
the movement of fluid from the point of injection to the tissues distribution
the movement of fluid into the tissues diffusion
Created by: leahmurphy