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Chemistry Chapter 2

Anything that has mass and occupies space. Substances that can either be elements or compounds. Matter
Pure substances, they can't be broken down or decomposed into two or more substances. Elements
Chemical combinations of two or more elements. Compounds
12 Elements 0.7% of the body's weight. Trace Elements.
Capacity to do work. to put matter into motion Energy
Human body has energy stored in bonds of molecules called-- Potential energy
Energy in motion Kinetic Energy
An ionic species having a negative charge Anion
Atoms having a positive charge Cations
Chemical substances that speed up the rate of a reaction. Catalyst
Results when two or more substances blend together rather than chemically combined. Each substance retains its own chemical property and because they're not chemically combined, the substances can be separated. Mixture
What is a Solution? Called a Solute, dissolved in a more abundance substance usually water. Example- Sugar in water.
What is a Colloid? Change from liquid to gel. Particles are small enough to stay permanently mixed, but large enough so that the mixture is cloudy.
What is Suspension? Contains large particles, making it cloudy or even opaque. If allowed to stand, the particles will separate and settle at the bottom of the container.
Metabolism is Anabolism and Catabolism
What is anabolism? Involves building larger and more complex chemical molecules, chemical reactions require energy input
What is catabolism? Breaking down complex compounds into simpler ones, breaking of chemical bonds releasing energy.
96% of the human body consists of what 4 elements? Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
What is an Atom? An atom is the basic unit of an element. An atom is a form of matter which may not be further broken down using any chemical means.
What are 3 types of Atoms? Protons, Neutrons, Electrons
Where are protons,neutrons, and electrons located? They are packed together in the center of the atom, called the nucleus. Protons carry the positive charge. Neutrons carry the neutral charge. and Electrons carry the negative charge.
How does Radiation Therapy work to treat cancer? Radioactive Isotopes emits particles as they break down. When those particles strike atoms in living cells they injure or kill the cells.
Ions Sometimes atoms gain or lose electrons. The atoms then lose or gain a negative charge. These atoms are then called Ions. Electrically charged
Electrolyte An electrolyte is a substance that ionizes when dissolved in suitable ionizing solvents such as water.
Catabolism? Breaks down molecules into smaller units to release energy.
What happens during anabolism? When the body creates new cells to replace the old worn-out cells, as well as repairing damaged cells.
Why is water important to the body? 60% of body weight is water
What is a compound? When 2 or more elements combine to create a new substance that has it's own chemical properties
What is a mixture? Results when 2 or more substances blend together rather than chemically combine. Each substance retains it's own chemical properties.
What is the difference between compound and mixture? A mixture involves more than 1 compound lumped together but a compound is a single substance. Difference is in the number.
There are 3 types of mixtures what are they? Solution, Colloid. Suspension.
What is an Acid? Any substance that releases a hydrogen ion (H+) when dissolved in water.
What is a Base? Base/Alkaline compounds are called acceptors. Bases balance out acids by "accepting" excess hydrogen ions.
Where does acid/base fall on the pH scale and why? The acidity or alkalinity of a substance expressed in terms of pH. The scale ranges from 0-14 0-6.6 is acidic 6.7-7.7 is neutral 7.7.5 is basic (alkaline)
Where does water,blood,gastric acid,lemon juice fall in the pH level? Water- 7.0 = Neutral Blood- 7.3-7.5 = Basic Gastric Acid - 0.9-3.0 = Acidic Lemon Juice - 2.3 = Acidic
Created by: kayley911