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Separating Mixtures

Terminology & Revision

What is a solution? A liquid which has a solute dissolved into the solvent. It will be clear and perhaps coloured ie instant coffee
What is a solvent? A liquid in which solutes can be dissolved
What is a solute? A substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution ie cordial
What is a mixture? It is a combination of 2 or more substances which can be separated ie soup
What does 'soluble' mean? It is a substance that can be dissolved in a liquid
What does 'insoluble' mean? A substance that will not dissolve in liquid ie sand
What does 'concentrated' mean? It contains a large amount of solute ie strong cordial
What does 'saturated' mean? The liquid ( solvent) can't dissolve any more solute ie milo
How do you 'dilute' something? Adding liquid
What is a 'suspension'? A mixture of gas or liquid and an insoluble substance. The insoluble substance will sink to the bottom ie orange juice if the liquid is kept still.
What is 'sediment'? Insoluble substances which settle at the bottom of suspensions ie orange juice pulp
'Filtration' means what? The process of separating suspended particles from fluid through a filter
What is 'residue'? Any material left on a filter after a liquid passes through after being filtered
What is a 'colloid'? A mixture which has extremely small particles spread evenly through the mixture ie muddy water
What is an 'emulsion'? A colloid with droplets of one liquid spread evenly through another liquid ie mayonnaise
What is 'decanting'? Pouring liquid off the top when sediment has settled at the bottom of the container ie tea leaves
What does 'sieving' mean? Particles of different sizes are placed in a container with holes, allowing the smaller particles to fall through
What does a centrifuge do? Spins the mixture and the heaviest substances move to the outside of the spinning container leaving the lighter substances in the centre
What is 'distillation'? A mixture is heated so one substance evaporates. This vapour is collected and condenses into a liquid
What happens when water evaporates? It heats and becomes a mist
What happens when water condenses? It cools and becomes a liquid
What is left when salt lakes dry up and crystallisation occurs? Salt
What does chromatography separate? Colours
What does a filter do? It blocks larger particles but allows smaller particles to pass through.
If something is 'contaminated' what does it mean? A substance has other substances in it which have a negative effect ie polluted
What happens in 'flocculation'? A chemical is added to a suspension to make substances 'floc' together and easier to filter out
What does 'froth flotation' mean? The process of adding a chemical to make mineral particles float to the top of a liquid so they can be collected ie copper mining
What is gravity separation? The separation of heavier particles by shaking or spinning them ie panning for gold
What is 'gangue'? Left over waste rock and minerals created during the processing of ore
Created by: nicolenixon