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Separating Mixtures

Terminology & Revision

QuestionAnswer
What is a solution? A liquid which has a solute dissolved into the solvent. It will be clear and perhaps coloured ie instant coffee
What is a solvent? A liquid in which solutes can be dissolved
What is a solute? A substance that is dissolved in a solvent to make a solution ie cordial
What is a mixture? It is a combination of 2 or more substances which can be separated ie soup
What does 'soluble' mean? It is a substance that can be dissolved in a liquid
What does 'insoluble' mean? A substance that will not dissolve in liquid ie sand
What does 'concentrated' mean? It contains a large amount of solute ie strong cordial
What does 'saturated' mean? The liquid ( solvent) can't dissolve any more solute ie milo
How do you 'dilute' something? Adding liquid
What is a 'suspension'? A mixture of gas or liquid and an insoluble substance. The insoluble substance will sink to the bottom ie orange juice if the liquid is kept still.
What is 'sediment'? Insoluble substances which settle at the bottom of suspensions ie orange juice pulp
'Filtration' means what? The process of separating suspended particles from fluid through a filter
What is 'residue'? Any material left on a filter after a liquid passes through after being filtered
What is a 'colloid'? A colloid with droplets of one liquid spread evenly through another liquid ie mayonnaise. The mixture will always look cloudy.
What is 'decanting'? Pouring liquid off the top when sediment has settled at the bottom of the container ie tea leaves
What does 'sieving' mean? Particles of different sizes are placed in a container with holes, allowing the smaller particles to fall through
What does a centrifuge do? Spins the mixture and the heaviest substances move to the outside of the spinning container leaving the lighter substances in the centre
What is 'distillation'? A mixture is heated so one substance evaporates. This vapour is collected and condenses into a liquid
What happens when water evaporates? It heats and becomes a mist
What happens when water condenses? It cools and becomes a liquid
What is left when salt lakes dry up and crystallisation occurs? Salt
What does a filter do? It blocks larger particles but allows smaller particles to pass through.
What is gravity separation? The separation of heavier particles by shaking or spinning them ie panning for gold
How can you separate sawdust and sand? Flotation
How can you most easily separate bits of iron or copper and mud Magnetic separation
Which is the most effective separation method? Centrifuging, decanting or filtration Centrifuging
Straining pasta is a form of? Filtering
Panning for gold is a form of... Decanting
The only way to get the solvent (liquid) back from a solution is... Distillation (evaporation and condensation)
The easiest way to get the solute (thing dissolved) from a solution is... Evaporation (can also use distillation)
Describe the changes of state (solid, liquid gas) in distillation Water is liquid, is heated to become steam (gas), cools (condensation) in the condensing chamber to become water (liquid) which drips into the beaker
Food colouring and water. Which is the solute? Food Colouring
Food colouring and water. Which is the solvent? Water
Which separation method is the best at separating blood? centrifuging
After centrifuging, the bottom layer is.... heaviest
paints inks and dyes are most easily separated using which method? chromatography
Created by: nicolenixon