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Acids & Bases

Chemistry Final

Characteristics of an acid tastes sour turns litmus indicator red react with metal to release H2 gas proton (H+) donor
Characteristics of a base tastes bitter turns litmus indicator blue proton (H+) acceptor
Is water an acid or a base? Water can act as both an acid and a base. This is called being amphoteric.
What is a conjugate? the conjugate of an acid or base is the complementary base/acid on the other side of the equation. Bases have conjugate acids, and vice versa. A strong acid/base will have a weak conjugate base/acid and vice versa.
pH -log[H+]
What does a strong acid do in water? What does a weak acid do in water? It will completely disassociate in water. (give away all its H+s) It will only partially disassociate. ' In both situations, this will form hydronium (1 in 10 million chance)
What does a strong base do in water? What does a weak base do in water? It will take all the hydrogen out of water. Will only take some of hydrogen out of water. In both cases, will form hydroxide.
pH levels of acids and bases Acid < Neutral (7) < Base
Acid + Base = H20 + salt
What does pH stand for? power of hydrogen
When does neutralization occur? When [H+] = [OH-]
Arrhenius Theorem Acids contain an H+ ion, release it in water Bases have OH-, release in water
Bronsted-Lowry Theorem Acids are proton (H+) donors Bases are proton (H+) acceptors
What prefix and suffix are used when naming acids that do not contain oxygen? prefix: hydro- suffix: -ic
What prefix and suffix are used when naming acids that do contain oxygen? prefix: none suffix: -ate -> -ic ; -ite -> -ous
Name HNO3 nitric acid
Name HNO2 nitrous acid
Give the chemical formula of hydrochloric acid HCl
Name HCN hydrocyanic acid
Give the chemical formula of chlorous acid HClO2
H2SO3 Sulfurous acid
What does H2O + H2O -> H3O + OH show? self-ionization
name acid-base conjugate pairs: HCl + H2O -> H3O + Cl HCl & Cl H2O & H3O
name acid-base conjugate pairs: NH3 + H2O -> NH4 + OH NH3 & NH4 H2O & OH
How do you convert pH to [H+]? pH = -log [H+]
How do you convert [H+] to pH? [H+] = 10^-pH
How do you convert [H+] to [OH-] and [OH-] to [H+]? [H+]+ [OH-] = 10^-14
How do you convert [OH-] to pOH? [OH-] = 10^-pOH
How do you convert pOH to [OH-}? pOH = -log [OH-]?
How do you convert pH to pOH? pH + pOH = 14
Created by: eMath