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Chemistry

Regents Chemistry

TermDefinition
Acidity a measure of the hydrogen (hydronium) ion concentration of a solution
activated complex the temporary, intermediate product in a chemical reaction
activation energy the amount of energy needed to form an activated complex from reactants
addition polymerization joining of monomers of unsaturated compounds
addition reaction an organic reaction in which a substance such as hydrogen or a halogen is added to the site of a double or triple bond
alcohol a organic compound containing the hydroxyl group (-OH) as the functional group
aldehyde an organic compound in which the carbonyl group (-C=O) is at the end of a carbon chain
alkali metal an element of group 1
alkaline earth metal an element of group 2
alkalinity a measure of the hydroxide ion concentration of a solution
alkane one of the homologous series of saturated hydrocarbons
alkyl group a group that contains one less hydrogen atom than an alkane with the same number of carbon atoms
alkene one of the homologous series of hydrocarbons that contain one triple covalent bond
alkyne one of the homologous series of hydrocarbons that contain one triple covalent bond
allotrope one of two or more different forms of an element in the same phase
alloy a homogeneous mixture of a metal with another element, usually another metal
alpha particle a helium nucleus
amide the product obtained form the reaction of an organic acid with an amine
amine an ammonia derivative in which one or more of the hydrogen atoms are replaced by an alkyl group
amino acid an organic compound containing both the amine group (-NH2) and the carboxylic group (-COOH)
analysis a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down (decomposed) into simpler substances
anode the site in an electrochemical cell where oxidation occurs
Arrhenius acid a substance that produces hydronium ions (H3O+) as the only positive ions when dissolved in water.
Arrhenius acid a substance that produces hydronium ions (OH-) as only negative ions when dissolved in water
artificial transmutation a transmutation caused by bombarding a nucleus with a high-energy particle, such as a neutron or an alpha particle
asymmetrical molecule a molecule that lacks identical atomic structure on each side of an axis
atom the smallest particle of an element that can enter into a chemical reaction
atomic mass the average mass of all the isotopes in a sample of an element
atomic mass unit one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom`
atomic number the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
atomic radius half the distance between two adjacent atoms in a crystal or half the distance between nuclei of identical atoms bonded together
Avogardo's number the number of representative particles contained in on mole of a substance; equal to 6.02x10^23 particles
beta particles high-energy electrons whose source is an atomic nucleus
boiling point the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressute
catalyst a substance that alters the speed of a chemical reaction without being permanently changed
cathode the site in an electrochemical cell where reduction occurs
chemical change a reaction in which the composition of a substance is changed
chemistry the study of the composition of matter and changes that occur in it
coefficient the number placed before a formula indicating the number of units of that substance
collision theory for a chemical reaction to occur, reactant particles must collide
combustion an exothermic reaction with oxygen, releasing heat
compund a substance composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined in definite proportions by mass
condensation an exothermic process in which a vapor or a gas changes into the liquid phase; the potential energy of the substances decreases during this constant temperature process; the reverse of the vaporization process
condensation polymerization the bonding of monomers by removing water from hydroxyl groups and joining the monomers by an ether or ester linkage
conductivity a measure of the ability of an electric current to flow through a substance
conjugate acid-base pair a pair of chemical formulas that differ only by the presence of a hydrogen ion
covalent bond a bond formed by the sharing electrons between two nuclei
decomposition a chemical reaction in which a compound is broken down into simpler substances
deposition the process in which a gas changes directly into a solid; the reverse of sublimation
diatomic molecule a molecule containing two identical atoms
double covalent bond the sharing of two pairs of electrons between two nuclei
double replacement a chemical reaction in which ions exchange places
ductility property of a metal that enables it to be drawn into a wire
electrochemical cell a system in which there is an electric current flowing while a chemical reaction occurs
electrode the site at which oxidation or reduction occurs; an anode or cathode
electrolysis a process in which an electric current forces a non-spontaneous redox reaction to occur
electrolyte a substance whose water solution conducts an electric current
electrolytic cell a cell that requires electricity to cause a non-spontaneous redox reaction to occur
electron a fundamental particle of matter having a negative charge
electron configuration the distribution of the electrons in an atom
electronegativity a measure of the attraction of the nucleus for a bonded electron
element substances that cannot be broken down or decomposed into simpler substances by chemical means
empirical formula the simplest integer ratio in which atoms combine to form a compound
endothermic a chemical reaction that absorbs heat, producing products with more potential energy than reactants
entropy a measure of the disorder or randomness of a system
equilibrium a condition in which the rates of opposing reactions are equal
equilibrium expression a mathematical expression that shows the relationship of reactants and products of a system at equilibrium
ester the organic product of an esterification reaction containing -COOC- as the functional group
esterification a chemical reaction between an alcohol and an acid to produce an ester and water
ether an organic compound in which oxygen is bonded to two carbon atoms (R1-O-R2)
evaporation the process by which molecules in the liquid phase escape into gaseous phase
excited state the condition that exists when the electrons of an atom occupy higher energy levels while lowers levels are vacant
exthermic a chemical reaction that releases heat, producing products with less potential energy that the reactants
family a vertical colomn on the periodic table
fermentation an organic reaction in which ethanol and carbon dioxide are produced from a carbohydrate
fission splitting of large nuclei into middle-weight nuclei and neutrons
formula point the sum of atomic masses of all atoms present
freezing point the temperature at which both solid and liquid phases of a substance exist in equilibrium; the same temperature as th substance's melting point
freezing the constant temperature process in which particles in the liquid phase lose energy and change into solid phase; also known as solidification; the reverse of the melting phase
functional group the atoms or atoms that replaces a hydrogen in the hydrocarbon and give a class of organic compounds characteristics properties
fusion the constant temperature process in which particles in the solid phase gain enough energy to break away into the liquid phase; also known as melting; the reverse of the freezing process
gamma ray high-energy ray similar th an X-ray
gaseous phase a phase of matter without definite shape or volume
gram formula mass the formula mass expressed in grams instead of atomic mass units
ground state the condition of an atom or ion in which the electrons occupy the lowest available energy levels
group a verticle column on the periodic table
half-life the length of time for the half of a given sample of a radioisotope to decay
half-reaction a reaction that shows either the oxidation or reduction portion of a redox reaction
halide a salt that includes a halogen
halogen an element of Group 17
heat energy transferred from one substance to another; measured in units of calories or joules
heat of fusion the amount of heat needed to convert a unit mass of a substance from a liquid to a vapor at its boiling point
heterogeneous a mixture in which the particles are not uniformly mixed
homogeneous a substance in which the particles are uniformly mixed
homologous series a group of related compounds in which each member differs from the one before it by the same additional unit
hydrate the crystalline form of an ionic substance that contains a definite number of water molecules
hydrocarbon organic compound containing only hydrogen and carbon atoms
hydrogen bond the attraction of a hydrogen atom in one molecule for an oxygen, nitrogen, or fluorine atom in another molecule
hydrogen ion a hydrogen atom without its electron (consisiting solely of a proton)
hydronium ion H3O+, formed by the combination of water with a hydrogen ion
hydroxide ion the polyatomic anion produced by the ionization of a water molecule
hydroxyl group the group comprised of an oxygen atom and a hydrogen atom (-OH) responsible for the properties of alcohols
indicator a substance that undergoes a color change that can be used to determine when a reaction is complete
inert gas group former name of the Group 18 noble gases
insoluble material with a low solubility
ionic bond a bond formed by the transfer of electrons from one atom to another
ionic radius the distance from the nucleus to the outer energy level of the ion
ionization energy the amount of energy needed to remove the most loosely bound electron from a neutral gaseous atom
isomers compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural arrangement
isotope atom of an element that has a specific number of protons and neutrons
ketone an organic compound in which the carbonyl group (-C=O) is joined to two other carbon atoms
kinetic molecular theory a theory used to explain the behavior of gases in terms of the motion of their particles
law of conservation of mass matter is neither created nor destroyed in chemcial reactions
law of definite proportions types of atoms in a compound exist in a fixed ration
Le Ch√Ętelier's principle a system at equilibrium will react to reduce a stress
Lewis dot diagram a diagram the depicts valence electrons as dots around the atomic symbol (representing the nucleus and nonvalence electrons) of the element
liquid phase a phase of matter having definite volume but no definite shape (takes the shape of its container)
malleability the property of metals that allows them to be hammered into shapes
mass number the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom
matter anything that has mass and volume
melting point the temperature at which both the solid and liquid phases exist in equilibrium; the same temperature as the substance's freezing point
metal element whose atoms lose electrons in chemical reactions to become positive ions
metallic bond the attraction of valence electrons for the positive kernels of matellic atoms
metalloid an element that has both metallic and nonmetallic properties
molarity the concentration of a substance in moles per liter of solution
mole the number of atoms of carbon present in 12.000g of carbon-12
molecular formula the actual ratio of the atoms in a molecule
molecule the smallest unit of a covalently bonded substance that has the properties of that substance
monomer each individual unit of a polymer
multiple covalent bond a double or triple covalent bond
neutralization the reaction between an acid and a base to produce water and a salt
neutron the unchanged particle in the nucleus of an atom
noble gas a nonreactive element that is in Group 18 on the periodic table
nonmetal element whose atoms will gain or share electrons in chemical reactions
nonpolar covalent bond a bond formed by the equal sharing of a pair of electrons between two nuclei
nucleus the dense, positively charged central core of an atom
octet of electrons the stable valence electron configuration of eight electrons
orbital a region in an atom in which an element of a particular amount of energy is most likely to be located
organic acid an organic compound containing one or more carboxyl group (-COOH)
organic halide an organic compound in which one or more hydrogen atoms have been replaced by an atom of a halogen; also known as as a halocarbon
oxidation number (state) number assigned to keep track of electron gain or loss in redox reactions
oxidation the loss of electrons and an increase in oxidation state
oxidizing agent the substance reduced in a redox reaction
parts per million the ratio between the parts of solute per million parts of solution
percent by volume the concentration of a solution expressed as the ratio between the volume of the solute and total volume of the solution, expressed as a percent
percent mass the concentration of a solution expressed as the ratio between the mass of the solute and the total mass of the solution, expressed as a percent
percentage composition the composition of a compound as a percentage of each element compared with the total mass of the compound
period a horizontal row of the periodic table
periodic law the properties of elements are periodic functions of their atomic numbers
pH scale a logarithmic scale that emasures the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scare of 1-14
pH the negative logarithm of a solution's hydrogen ion concentration
physical change a change that does not alter the chemical properties of a substance
polar covalent bond a bond formed by the unequal sharing of electrons between two nuclei
polyatomic ion a covalently bonded group of atoms that have a net electric charge
polymer organic compound made up of chains of smaller units bonded together
polymerization an organic reaction in which many small units are joined together to form a long chain
positron a particle identical to an electron except that it has a positive charge
potential energy diagram a diagram showing the changes in potential energy as a reaction proceeds
primary alcohol an alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom at the end of a chain
product a substance formed in a chemical reaction, shown to the right of the arrow in an equation
proton the positivly charged particle in the nuclus of an atom
pure substance a compound or an element; a material in which the composition is the same throughout
qualitative information that cannot be counted or measured
quantitative information that can be either counted or measured
quantum number on of a set of four numbers that describes a property of an electron in an atom
quantum theory a concept that relates the chemical behavior of atoms to energy being transfered in discrete units called quanta
radioisotope an unstable nucleus that is radioactive
reactant a starting substance in a reaction, shown to the left of the arrow in an equation
redox an oxidation-reduction reaction
reducing agent the substance oxidized in a redox reaction
reduction the gain of electrons and the loss of oxidation number
salt the product (other than water) of a neutralization reaction; an ionic substance consisting of a metalication and anion other than the hydroxide ion
salt bridge a part of a voltaic cell that connects two containers and allows the flow of ions
saponification the reaction of an alkali and a fat to produce glycerol and a soap
saturated (solution) a solution containing the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve at a given temperature; (Organic) organic compounds containing only single covalent bonds
secondary alcohol an alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom that is attached to two other carbon atoms
single covalent bond only one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms
single replacement a reaction in which an elment replaces a less reactive element in a compound
solid phase a phase of matter having a definite shape and volume; particles in this phase have a definite crystalline arrangement
salubility a measure of how much solute will dissolve in a certain amount of solvent at a specific temperature
soluble material with high salubility
solute the substance being dissolved
solution a homogeneous mixture of substances in the same physical state
solvent the substance that dissolves the solute
stress any changein concentration, pressure, or temperature on an equilibrium system
sublimation the process in which a solid changes directly inot a gas; the reverse of deposition
subscript the number written after a chemical symbol in a formula indicating the number of atoms present
substitution reaction one or more hydrogen atoms is removed from a saturated hydrocarbo and replaced by another
supersaturated a solution tha contains more solute than ould dissolve in a saturated solution at a given temperature
symbol a one-, two- or three-letter designation of an element
symmetric molecule a molecule with identical atomic structure on each side of an axis
synthesis a reaction in which two or more substances combine to form one product
temperature the measure of the average kinetic energy of a substance's particles
tertiary alcohol an alcohol with a hydroxyl group attached to a carbon atom that is attached to thress other carbon atoms
titration the process of determining the concentration of an unkown solution by a reaction with a solution of known concentration
tracer a radioisotope used to track a chemical reation
transmutation the changing of a nucleus of one element into that of a different element
triple bond the sharing of three pairs of electrons between two nuclei
unstaturated (solution) a solution in which more solute can be dissolved at a given temperature; (organic) an organic compound containing one or more double or triple covalent bonds
valence electrons the electrons in the outer energy level of an atom
vapor the gaseous state of a substance that is normally a liquid at room temperature
vapor pressure the pressure that a vapor exerts
vaporization the constant temperature process in which particles in the liquid phase gain enough energy to break away from the gaseous phase; also known as boiling; the reverse of the condensaiion process
voltaic cell an electrochemical cell in which a spontaneous chemical reaction causes a flow of electrons
wave-mechanical model the current model of the atom that deals with the wave-particle duality of nature
Created by: Newark Reds