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Ms Dixon chem exam

spring 2015

Scientific Notation only one number to the left of decimal move decimal left = positive exponent move decimal right = negative exponent
Sig figs non zeroes and trapped zeroes are ALWAYS significant trailing zeroes are ONLY important if there is a decimal leading zeroes are NEVER significant even if there's a decimal
SI unit for temperature Kelvin
SI inti for time second
SI unit for mass kilogram
SI unit for length meter
SI unit for electricity Ampere
SI unit for amount mole
Matter anything that occupies space and has mass (solid, liquid, gas)
Physical Properties properties that can be observed and measured without changing the chemical makeup of a substance (exp: weight, odor, color, density, melting point, boiling point)
Chemical Properties Any quality that can be established by changing a chemical's makeup (exp: reactivity, combustibility, oxidation state, pH)
Atoms The building blocks of matter, the smallest particle possessing the properties of an element
Element Matter made from only one type of atom
compound Matter made of 2 or more different types of atoms linked toegther
Molecule Smallest part of a substance still retaining the properties of that substance
H Hydrogen
He Helium
Li Lithium
Be Beryllium
B Boron
C Carbon
N Nitrogen
O Oxygen
F Fluorine
Ne Neon
Na Sodium
Mg Magnesium
Al Aluminum
Si Silicon
P Phosphorus
S Sulfur
Cl Chlorine
Ar Argon
K Potassium
Ca Calcium
Sc Scandium
Ti Titanium
V Vanadium
Cr Chromium
Mn Manganese
Fe Iron
Co Cobalt
Ni Nickel
Cu copper
Zn Zinc
Ga Gallium
Ge Germanium
As Arsenic
Se Selenium
Br Bromine
Kr Krypton
Hg Mercury
Au Gold
Ag Silver
Pb lead
Xe Xenon
Rn radon
Sn tin
Chemical Reactions breaking and reforming of chemical bonds causing atoms to be arranged into new substances
Reactants the starting materials in a reaction (left of arrow)
Products the materials produced in a reaction (right of arrow)
proton positively charged subatomic particle found in a cell's nucleus
electron negatively charged subatomic particle found in a cell's electron cloud
neutron subatomic particle with no charge found in the nucleus
Ions Any atom or group of atoms with an electric charge
Cation Positively charged Ion
Anion Negatively charged Ion (suffix '-ide')
Polyatomic Ion an ion (positively or negatively charged atom) consisting of a group of bonded atom
Mole Avogadro's number= 6.02 x 10^23
redox the transfer of electrons that happens during a chemical equation
KMT constant random motion straight line motion negligible volume no forces of attraction elastic collisions
Molar Rodmap all roads lead to the mole
Striker metal and flint instrument used to light things by emitting sparks
Atmosphere (layers from earth) Troposphere,stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere
concentration the amount of solute per unit volume of solution
Bunsen burner a small adjustable gas burner using gas
truncate to cut off
theoretical yield the amount predicted by a stoichiometric calculation based on the number of moles of all reactants present.
yield product of a reaction
percent yield the actual yield/theoretical yield x 100. actual yield. The amount of product actually obtained in a chemical reaction
porous having minute spaces or holes through which liquid or air may pass
residue a small amount of something that remains after the main part has gone or been taken or used
desiccate remove the moisture from (something, especially food), typically in order to preserve it
buffer solutions solution with either a weak acid and a base or a weak base and an acid
Acid Any substance that generates or increases the concentration of Hydrogen (H+) ions in an aqueous solution
,Base Any substance that produces or increases the concentration of hydroxide (OH-) ions in an aqueous solution.
Created by: aussit123