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Science Study Guide

TermDefinition
Force Strength or energy as an attribute of physical action or movement
Friction The resistance that one surface or object encounters when moving over another
Weight A body's relative mass or the quantity of matter contained by it, giving rise to a downward force; the heaviness of a person or thing
Speed The rate at which someone or something is able to move or operate
Velocity The speed of something in a given direction
Acceleration Increase in the rate or speed of something
Sliding Friction The friction between two bodies that are in sliding contact
Rolling Friction The force resisting the motion when a body (such as a ball, tire, or wheel) rolls on a surface
Static Friction Friction that exists between a stationary object and the surface on which it's resting
Fluid Friction Fluid friction occurs between layers within a fluid that are moving relative to each other
Work Applying a certain force to someone or something
Power The ability to do something or act in a particular way
Gravitational Potential Mass inside of an object
Energy Power derived from the utilization of physical or chemical resources
Altitude The height of an object or point in relation to sea level or ground level
Weather The state of the atmosphere at a place and time as regards heat, dryness, sunshine, wind, rain, etc
Atmosphere The envelope of gases surrounding a planet
Water Vapor Water in its gass state
Radiation The emission of energy as electromagnetic waves move through subatomic particles
UV Rays Radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum where wavelengths are just shorter than those of visible light
Infrared Radiation Bulk of all radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum
Greenhouse Effect The trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere, thus causing global warming
Scattering The process in which electromagnetic radiation or particles are deflected or diffused
Optical Telescope An astronomical telescope designed to collect and record light from cosmic sources
Nonoptical Telescope An astronomical telescope designed to collect and record visible light and its wavelengths
Parallax The effect where the position or direction of an object appears to differ when viewed from different positions
Light Year A unit of astronomical distance equivalent to the distance that light travels in one year, which is nearly 6 trillion miles.
Umbra The fully shaded inner region of a shadow cast by an opaque object, especially the area on the earth or moon experiencing the total phase of an eclipse
Penumbra The partially shaded outer region of the shadow cast by a solar eclipse
Gravitational Pull On Earth 9.8m/s2
Newtons First Law Every object will remain at rest untill acted upon by an outside force
Newton's Second Law F=ma
Newton's Third Law For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Layers Of The Atmosphere Exosphere, Thermosphere, Mesosphere, Stratosphere, Troposphere
The Contents Of The Electromagnetic Spectrum Infrared radiation, UV rays, visible light, gamma rays, radio waves
Kinetic Energy Energy that a body possesses by virtue of being in motion
Potential Energy The energy possessed by a body by virtue of its position relative to others, stresses within itself, electric charge, and other factors
Created by: maxisgreat