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ch 15 physics

definitions

TermDefinition
continuous spectrum
spectrograph the photograph, product or print out produces by a spectroscope
light year used to measure the distance of stars. equals the distance light travels in one year
intensity the light sources power, rate at which it radiates energy ...aka brightness
candela SI unit used to measure brightness. based on the emission of light from solidifying platinum
inverse square law illumination is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the light source. pg 357
incandescence light produced by materials heated until they glow . results when atoms and their electrons vibrate rapidly with thermal energy
fluorescence occurs when a substance radiates visible light as it absorbs a higher energy form of EM energy
phosphorescence similar to fluorescence but the object continues to emit visible light after the energy source is removed
coherent light produces monochromatic light. consists of photons that have the same wavelengths (same color). extremely bright (lasers ,LEDs)
cold light produced from chemical reactions at temps. far below those required for incandescence . bioluminescence and chemiluminescence are types of it (fire flies and glow sticks)
primary hue human brain can distinguish 3 colors of light (red ,blue,green) that can be mixed to produce most other hues aka additive primary colors
additive primary color aka primary hue :red blue green
subtractive primary color cyan, magenta, yellow. mixing produces more brilliant colors . mixture of to addictive colors
complementary color subtractive primary colors are _______ to additive primary colors.
saturation the intensity /brightness of a color
value how light or dark the color appears
beam a straight line projection of light which is made of many photons moving in the same direction
ray line with an arrow head showing direction
diffuse reflection most common type. rough or uneven surfaces reflect light rays in all directions
spectacular reflection produced by smooth polished surface such as metal or glass . reflect all the light rays from a source in generally the same direction . forms an image of the light source
incident ray the light ray approaching an object
reflected ray the outgoing ray that bounces off the object
law of reflection the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection
plane mirror a flat mirror. image appears upright image an equal distance away on the opposite side of mirror
virtual image seen in a position but no real object exists behind the mirror. image exists as construction made by brain from reflected light rays
real image formed when rays of light from a source are made to converge or come together by a focusing optical device
concave mirror slightly dished on the reflected side.
principal optical axis an imaginary line normal (perpendicular) to the mirrors surface at the center
principal focus light rays reflected and converge on the point in front of the mirror
focal point aka principal focus. ... light ray reflected focus on this point
focal length principal focus lies on the optical axis at a distance from the mirrors center
convex mirror surface bulges outward. cannot produce real image because all light rays reflected off the convex surface diverge even more than from a plane mirror
optical density a measure of the materials ability to transmit or absorb light
index of refraction the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in the material. h=c/v. always greater than one
total internal reflection the angle of incidence is increased to the point here the light ray bounces back into the original material
critical angle of incidence the angle of incidence at which this phenomenon begins
fiber optics growing field of technology. thin rods of glass to transmit light ...has helped with surgeries and such
light dispersion when a light ray passes through the boundary between two materials, its angle of refraction depends on its frequency as well as its angle of incidence. higher frequency will bend more
lens a disk of optically clear material that refracts light to produce a real or virtual image
converging lens collects incoming rays of light and focuses them on a pint
diverging lens collects incoming rays of light and spreads them apart
meniscus lens corrective lenses compensate by focusing light rays on exactly the retina .both sides of the lenses are curved in the same direction
Created by: NinaTest